41

There is an ISO which is not necessarily 200 that is the native sensitivity of the silicon from which the sensor is made. That sensitivity depends on the sensor itself, so will vary between cameras, but it is almost always between ISO 100 and 200. The camera amplifies the signal to get higher sensitivities. It scales down the signal to get lower ones. ...


38

It's likely the sum of a few factors. Firstly, although you state "the same f-stop", it's important to realise that the manufacturer stated focal length and aperture values are often rounded, and not always in the way you'd expect. It might be the case that the Samyang is f/1.45 in reality, not f/1.4. The next factor is vignetting, wide aperture lenses are ...


34

This is usually caused by the camera taking the scene as a whole and treating it as 18% gray. This is the way light meters (and camera meters) are calibrated to see the world. Scene mostly snow? 18% gray. Black cat in a coal mine? 18% gray. The camera doesn't know what you're taking a picture of, so it assumes that the scene is, on average, 18% gray and ...


32

So I first shoot with ISO 1600 and shutter speed set to 1/125 second and then I shoot with ISO 3200 and shutter speed set to 1/250 second. The amount of light should be identical and indeed both shots look properly exposed and exposed the same way. The amount of light is not identical. You let twice as much light into the camera at 1/125 second than at 1/...


31

The answer to this question revolves around explaining how zoom lenses function because you are correct in your observation: As you zoom to higher and higher magnifications the image dims unless somehow compensation is applied. Suppose you zoom from 25mm to 50mm, should the working diameter of the aperture remain unchanged, image brightness would suffer a 4x ...


31

No, changing the exposure or using an ND filter will not help you with this, since both will only brighten or darken everything by a certain factor. Your problem is the large relative difference between the bright and dark parts, the dynamic range. And your eyes can capture a much larger dynamic range than the camera's sensor. In order to have a photo ...


29

That's a nice silhouette! You're running into the same problem that anyone runs into when photographing a very backlit subject: a lot of light is coming from the background and creating a drastic difference in ideal exposure between the background and foreground. Given this, you can handle the situation a number of different ways: Change the Exposure to ...


27

You could've probably got a decent result just by picking an intermediate exposure. Alternatively, you can try to take a short and a long exposure of the same scene, and combine them digitally afterwards. Here's what I got just by taking your two images above (mouse cursor and all), aligning them (manually, using the Scale tool in GIMP) and blending them ...


26

The first step is to find a situation where the atmosphere is right for such effects to appear to the naked eye - whether it's steam or fog or dust or whatever else in the air that is reflecting the light. Once you have that, the lens, aperture, shutter and ISO don't matter as much, as long as the combination chosen results in a good exposure and the ...


25

What is going on? I compared both pictures of the field (left out the one with the tractor, as it suffers from the same problem as the other over-exposed picture, IMHO) in After effects. The image above is a composition of all that I did: First, the composition of both your original images that I made in AE (white canvas added only here), then both ...


25

This is normal behavior, caused by: Imperfections of aperture. Usually there are variations from technology process which cause not to have exact size of the hole. On 50mm lens f4 you should have 12.5mm opening, but it can be 12.4mm or 12.6mm Imperfections in shutter speed. The shutter is also mechanical unit and based on some factors as temperature, how ...


23

What's the difference between “Fake HDR” and real, bracketed exposure HDR? The only difference is how broadly or narrowly you decide to define the term High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDR). Do you use the broader term as it has been historically used for over 150 years to reference techniques used to display a scene with higher dynamic range than the dynamic ...


23

The information your friend gave you was essentially correct for most digital cameras, particularly compact digital cameras with very small sensors, made about 15-20 years ago. Digital imaging sensors were more primitive and noise reduction techniques were less sophisticated. By placing the native sensitivity of a sensor at one stop higher than what ...


23

I'd guess you're under-exposing a long way & the lab is having to work them really hard* to get anything like an image out of them; hence the amount of noise in them & no real blacks anywhere - but I'll leave it to someone more versed in film photography to post a fuller answer. *From comments - I had mistakenly used 'push' as a term for which I ...


21

That description only represents the "base setting", or "N" exposure, of the Zone System. The idea that the Zone System revolves around 10 exposure steps is a vast oversimplification. There are, indeed, 10 (or, actually, 11) "zones", or major tonal values in the print, ranging from effectively unexposed white paper (at Zone X) to the paper's Dmax at Zone 0. ...


21

The Factors There is an equation, and by convention, it's set up to be really simple. There are basically five factors to consider together: Aperture — the size of the opening which lets light in, Shutter Duration (or shutter speed) — the amount of time the sensor (or film) gets that light, Sensitivity (or ISO, or sometimes "film speed") — how quickly the ...


20

A digital sensor isn't really best described as "reading data". A much better way to describe it is "collecting photons" that are then converted into data by measuring the microscopic electrical charges they produce once the collection period is over. They do not have the capability to continuously record the changing state of each pixel well as they collect ...


20

That is a true statement, but it misses the big point. (As the shutter would see it), it would simply become continuous light, like any incandescent light bulb (always On for the full shutter duration would be indistinguishable from continuous light). Like continuous light, there would be no motion stopping ability at all. And even a 500 watt light bulb ...


20

Why? Fundamentally, it's because of the way flashes work. Flashtubes generate light by discharging a capacitor through a xenon-filled tube. The resulting electric arc produces bright white light. But a continuous electric arc would produce a lot of heat, which would weaken the tube, and it would consume a lot of power, which batteries cannot supply for long....


19

In the immortal words of the late National Geographic photo editor Bob Gilka, "Kid, if you want to be a better photographer, you're going to have to stand in front of more interesting stuff." That said, welcome to the sometimes not-so-wonderful world of the commercial/industrial photographer. As often as not, making a dramatic, exciting picture of something ...


19

Definitely you shall use frontal lighting. Mostly so called fill-in flash. The second option: HDR with at least 3 shots to get high, mid and low tones.


19

All of these scenes have something in common: they’re high contrast with many, many stops between the shadows and the highlights. If you were to meter for the shadows, then you’d blow the highlights (image 3). Meter for the highlights, and drown the shadows (images 1 and 2). Because you set evaluative metering, the whole frame is being taken into account ...


19

Your camera's light meter measures brightness, but it can't tell if the brightness level it is measuring is a black cat in a coal mine or a white cat in a snowstorm.¹ It assumes everything you point your camera at is somewhere about halfway in between those extremes. ¹ Sure, the scene with the white cat will probably be brighter than the scene with the ...


18

What exactly limits modern digital camera sensors in capturing light intensity beyond certain point? In terms of the physical properties of the sensor itself: The number of photon strikes and the number of free electrons resulting from such photon strikes until there are no more available electrons with the potential to be freed within each photosite (a/k/...


18

[SAFETY WARNING: You should never image the sun with anything approaching a telephoto lens when it is more than about 10° above the horizon without a solar filter that not only protects against visible light, but also against UV and infrared!! Failure to heed this warning could result in permanent damage to your lens, camera, or eyes!] You don't need an ND ...


17

why does shutter speed modify picture sharpness/detail? Why do pictures get darker with faster shutter speeds, and brighter with slower shutter speeds? These things happen because the light sensor in the camera doesn't measure the intensity of light instantaneously, but rather measures all the light received during the entire exposure. You could say that ...


17

This is the situation when you use fill-flash. Contrary to common belief, flash is NOT to be used in darkness. In darkness flash lights up the foreground and leaves background pitch black. Flash is best used to outshine bright light you can't control (like sun) so you can bring dark foreground up to bright background. This will most likely create white ...


17

He is using ISO 320 film and exposing it as if it were ISO 160. This is over-exposing the film by 1 stop. He's then under-developing the film by 20% off the normal development times recommended for shooting at ISO 320. This technique is called Pull processing. Its reverse is called Push Processing. In Pulling film, you overexpose the film and then reduce ...


17

During focussing, the lens is left at full aperture. It's only when you take the picture that it closes down to the appropriate f-stop. That's so you can see what's going on and so that the camera has enough light to focus. So, yes, a lens with a maximum aperture that's two f-stops larger than another will let in four times as much light during focussing. ...


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