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20

My antique wooden Kodak™ day-light loader (ca. 1905) was made with a removable spool of thin (now quite brittle) perforated celluloid with raised rubber edges. The film was sandwiched between the layers of the roll. The celluloid strip was wide enough to accommodate all sizes from miniature to very wide 128 (2½" wide!). The roll of film was wound inside ...


11

You might look at the Wikipedia Photography Technology timeline. A few key points from that reference: 1909 – Kodak produces 35 mm motion picture film on an acetate (less flammable) base 1913 - Kodak introduces panchromatic film (approximating the color sensitivity of the eye - older emulsions were not very sensitive to red light). 1925 - These innovations ...


10

The purpose of the final wash is to get all of the chemistry (really, the fix) out of the film (or paper). If you don't do this then your film will be damaged by the chemistry over time. It's hard to tell how much chemistry is still in the film, and washing is a very easy process to do, so people tend to be very conservative. Ilford did some research on ...


9

Jargon of photographic chemical mixing and preparation: Concentrate — Chemical that comes bottled in kits and must be diluted. Stock Solution — A chemical that has been mixed from concentrates or powdered formula. This solution must be diluted with water for use. Working Solution — Photo chemicals at the correct concentration for use. As a rule of thumb — ...


7

'Stock' means 1+0: don't dilute the dev at all, just use the stock solution you made up.


6

You can use the same container and mixing utensils and thermometer etc. for mixing. This is valid provided you take care to rinse well between solutions. Also, the items must not be porous (ceramic etc.). If you are in doubt regarding your ability to properly rinse, you can still proceed if containers and utensils are seasoned. To season, save small ...


6

What you need to do first of all is wind the film out of the camera the normal way. Then one of two things will be true: when you look at the film can it will be a 24-exposure roll and there is in fact no problem; you load another roll, it jams again and you now know there's some problem with the camera which you need to get someone to look at.


5

The 30 seconds is "wet time". In other words, you pour in the stop bath (or dunk the film in), this stop bath solution for 30 seconds (time in this solution is not critical). This Adox stop is an indicator stop. In other words, this solution contains an indicator dye that changes the solution to blue (indigo) when exhausted. The rest of the story -- ...


5

In general, should you ever incur a problem with your camera, the first priority is to save the shots. Always carry a change bag with you! First, attempt to rewind the film normally. If this, too, is stuck...then you'll need to crack the back and pull the film (carefully) by hand (this is where the change bag comes in). Once you get the film rewound back ...


4

Developing black and white 35mm film in the 1920s would have been similar to how it's done today. Here is what I found, along with links... It seems you've already done some research to determine that 35mm cameras, such as Leica A, were available in the 1920s. You can read a bit about 35mm film on Wikipedia (135 film; 35mm movie film). Note that preloaded ...


4

I think it's more likely these photos were taken with a film that was rated at a higher speed, shot at that speed, and "pushed" in the processing to compensate for the "underexposure." Film then was relatively slow. One of the very fastest film was rated at "ASA" 1200 (Royal Pan X, for example) and processed in a high-energy developer or in rare ...


4

Washing photo materials to remove the processing chemicals has been well studied. Both photo film and photo papers are based on a binder consisting of gelatin. In other words, dispersed in gelatin is the metallic silver image (black & white) or dye image (color). Gelatin is a long chain polymer; under the microscope, it resembles transparent spaghetti. ...


4

Photographic chemicals are generally robust however they will lose their effectiveness over time. Exactly how long will be their shelf life is a variable. Developers tend to have the shortest shelf life. This is because the developing agents are relatives of benzene which was initially synthesized from coal. These agents have an affinity for oxygen. They ...


4

Ilfotol and Photo Flo are recommended solutions to use...but not required to use...in film development. They're effectively really, really dilute soaps. My bottle of Photo Flo isn't as old as tfb's - it's going on about 8 years - but I can tell you that it still looks the same, smells the same, has the same consistency, and doesn't have any particles in ...


3

The problem with photo chemistry is that it changes and becomes unusable. The rate of change is best controlled by limiting the amount of exposure to air and warmth. Control the air by storing in the smallest bottle needed and making sure it has a good seal. Control for warmth by storing at room temp, or even better, in a fridge. I’d say that, yes, you ...


3

The absolute minimum time is 0 to get a usable image. The process, however, is incomplete and the residual chemicals in the emulsion will degrade the image over time. The longer you wash (the more hypo you remove from the emulsion) the greater the archival stability of the image. For rapid access (processing breaking news film before electronics), we would ...


2

We are a film developing lab. Every once in a while, we develop a roll of film that has a green cast to it. It is either old film or film that was subjected to heat.


2

Having started in film photography many years ago, one factor which was both a positive and a negative (no pun intended!) was the expense of the whole process. This meant one spent more time composing, thinking, evaluating a given shot. Unfortunately this caused missed opportunities at times, but also helped one learn the process. For example, as a ...


2

Your question seems to mainly focus on exposure...so let me shed some light on the topic. Disregarding your built in meter, using a hand held meter, and full manual settings is a decent exercise regardless of whether you’re shooting digital or film - knowing more about exposure never hurts. With film, you won’t get a histogram...So it’s best to learn how ...


2

Your ideas may be useful for practice, but consider these points on the basis of the particular film camera you will be using: Does it have built-in metering? That is not uncommon. Does it have autofocus? That is less common, but possible. Will you be shooting color, monochrome (B/W)or a combination? Negative or slides? B/W has the greatest exposure ...


2

Assuming you have a 120 tank, then a good approach would be to load the film into the tank which will leave you with the strip of backing paper. The chances are that somewhere on that paper it says what the film is. You may also be able to work out from the backing paper &/or the camera about how old it is, which will give you a chance to work out how ...


2

No, it wouldn't, not even slightly. Because 'working with film' is hugely variable: there are film cameras which have comprehensive autofocus and matrix metering with fully programmed exposure, and which can shoot more than 5 frames a second; there are film cameras which have no meter at all, and no focussing aids whatsoever; there are film cameras which ...


2

While you can use the same mixing jug, provided some precautions as Alan Marcus mentions...I'm somewhat confused as to the why of this. Ideally, you've got separate storage containers for your mixed stop, fix, and perma-wash (and photo Flo, if you use it). You can measure your chemicals in your measuring device of choice and then add to your storage ...


2

Probably caused by a sticking shutter. Multiple possible causes... the only thing to do is have it serviced and hopefully it is something easy to fix (CLA as Hueco said). Last film camera I took in to have the shutter fixed was DOA w/ no repair parts available... and that was over a decade ago. Either way it will probably cost more than the camera is worth (...


2

Agitation time is included in the development time. Assuming you are using a small tank (this type seems to be the most common) the agitation is by inversion. You start your timer, pour the developer in, seal the lid tightly, tap it to your table forcefully (to let the bubbles go) and then proceed to invert the tank for the first 30 seconds. Then invert 3 ...


2

ColorPlus 100 is a negative color film. Negative films are a means to an end. In other words, negative film is designed to be transformed to a positive image for viewing. The negative / positive process of photo imaging is very forgiving as to the necessity to get the exposure “right”. Originally we re-exposed the developed negative film by projecting its ...


2

You're in luck. About two decades past expiration isn't terribly long, especially if stored well. Fog is worse on faster film than slower, so you're in luck here as well. And finally, it's color negative film - which is designed to tolerate overexposure of many (up to 6 in some films!) stops. I's personally rate it at 1 stop down (ISO 50) and go from ...


2

Provided your Paterson tank is of type 115 - the one that can take either two 135 or one 120 films - it is the best practice to fill it with 500 ml (or so... can be up to 520 if using Rodinal 1+25 dilution) of developer. You can load the second reel empty, to ensure uniform cover or your film. For most developing situations this is merely a convenience ...


1

First of all development times for B/W are just not that critical: you can get decent negs with fairly widely-varying times. Obviously if you want optimal & very repeatable negs you need to be significantly more careful. But you're not going to get that anyway if you buy random film, and actually some variation can be interesting sometimes. That being ...


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