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[SAFETY WARNING: You should never image the sun with anything approaching a telephoto lens when it is more than about 10° above the horizon without a solar filter that not only protects against visible light, but also against UV and infrared!! Failure to heed this warning could result in permanent damage to your lens, camera, or eyes!] You don't need an ND ...


12

TL;DR: In low light conditions, selecting manual or auto ISO is a decision about risks: having lower or higher noise vs. the probability of blurred pictures vs. time. ISO, aperture, exposure time - these are the in-camera values that determine our photo. (Using a flash adds another one.) It does not matter how the camera arrives at these values. E.g. ISO ...


11

I was told it’s not good to use auto ISO If unqualified, whoever told you that is a fool. Auto ISO is a tool, and as with any other tool it can be used well and it can be used badly. Instead try to learn when auto ISO will do as well (or better) than setting it manually, and when you need to override the camera's decision.


11

It’s getting me the shot even though there is some noise This is the point. If your priority is getting the shot, why not. But if your priority is getting a printable photo (which is what many people are after) then you have to make sure that you won't be using an ISO setting that makes your camera produce more noise that you can post-process (given your ...


10

Generally, the best image quality will be obtained at base ISO, which is usually the lowest ISO setting normally available. Some cameras let the user set an ISO value lower than the base ISO by enabling "expanded" ISO settings. In that case dynamic range is reduced. See PetaPixel: Lower ISO Doesn’t Always Lead to Higher Quality Images, Or this ...


10

No, there is no difference between Auto ISO choosing ISO 800 versus manually selecting ISO 800. The end result is the same: the photo is taken with an ISO value of 800. Consider this scenario: You take a photo with your camera's fully automatic setting, and it selects an aperture of f/16. You then switch to Aperture Priority mode, manually select f/16, ...


6

If you actually cannot choose from among several photos, your inability to choose means there is no significant difference among them, regardless of ISO. Just pick one randomly and move on. All other things being equal, there is about a stop of ISO values that would result in correct exposure. Within that range, you can use a higher ISO if you want a ...


6

First there is no such thing as "no noise". Even on base ISO you have noise in the photos. And set ISO manual do not reduce noise. If you have two photos, one with auto ISO 100 and one with manual ISO 100 both with have (relatively) the same amount of noise. Manual setting of ISO will help you when the camera "decided" to set higher ISO ...


5

Your first image is incredibly underexposed. Grainy + grey/lack of contrast on color negative films is the dead giveaway for underexposure. Your second image looks properly exposed and the color and contrast look to be what I'd expect with Portra 400 shot midday-ish in hard sun. I don't think there is a gear/film issue here. ISO400 film is not fast enough ...


5

The moon is properly exposed at about EV 14 when it is more than 20° or so above the horizon. The rest of the landscape of a night-time scene is probably properly exposed anywhere from about EV0 to EV-3! That's a minimum of 14 stops and more likely 16-17 stops! No camera can realistically capture details of both at the same time. So you have to cheat! One ...


5

You are muddling two things: The particular ISO value chosen (100, 200, 1200, etc) The way of choosing that value It is the value chosen which affects the amount of noise: a high value is more likely to have visible noise, because it is trying to amplify small differences in light to make them visible. A similar kind of noise would appear if you under-...


4

Apart from the obvious consideration that high ISOs will be preferred in situations of low available light, one further point not yet mentioned is that in the context of film, different emulsions with different ISO ratings have vastly different grain characteristics. Sometimes prominent grain (high ISO) is chosen for its artistic effect, even when a lower ...


4

What are some best practices? This is all opinion... or, at best, situational. My personal feeling is that it is best to learn exposure in full manual mode and learn/understand the exposure triangle. The basic concepts are really not that hard if you just jump in and apply it. Then you can use automation to help you achieve what you would have done manually,...


4

In my opinion, there is only one best practice. Know your stuff, know your gear. In this case, define what is the maximum iso you are willing to use, the maximum noise you are willing to accept in most cases. Prepare a small studio scene, on an interior so the light does not change too much during your session. A Still life scene with some bright colors and ...


4

In short, manual vs automatic ISO setting has nothing to do with noise. I'll try to give a short summary about how noise works, which you help you understand how much noise you will get in different situations. How is ISO related to noise? The ISO value that was used is a good indicator of how noisy the image is assuming that the photo was correctly exposed....


3

The symptoms would indicate a sticking second curtain (if the shutter travels from top to bottom across the sensor). The symptoms also seem to indicate that it works itself free... i.e. first image second curtain stuck for a long time affecting entire image, second image the second curtain stuck for a moment affecting only bottom edge of image, third image ...


3

This happens because you are using a variable max aperture lens. The aperture iris is not actually opening or closing as you zoom out – its actual opening size is staying constant. It's just that the entrance pupil, the apparent size of the aperture opening when viewed through the front of the lens, is changing size due to the movements of the lens element ...


3

You probably use a small aperture. When autofocus does its work, it usually does it with wide open aperture. That's why you get a brighter image for a small time. It says nothing about the brightness of the final image. This may be different when using phased-based autofocus and contrast-based autofocus, but this depends on what the camera does. Some ...


3

The cameras produce different results because you're using the same raw processing settings for cameras that have different sensors and processing pipelines. You need to tweak the settings to match the camera. To improve highlight detail: Don't increase the exposure setting so much. Increase shadow and highlight recovery. This should work if the detail ...


3

You can use pinhole camera calculations. It doesn't really matter that it is a terribly made/designed pinhole camera. The distance that the lens mount opening (pinhole lens) is in front of the image/film plane is the camera's focal length. And the opening's diameter in relation to the focal length is it's f-ratio/f#. For the Nikon F mount SLR/DSLR's w/o a ...


3

The AE-Lock function simply locks the metered exposure. Cameras generally have two modes of operation for this feature: Press-and-Hold or Press-to-Toggle. Depending on your camera, either one could be the default but this can be configured on most but not all models. First, be sure you actually used AE-Lock. Sometimes you can override the button to do ...


3

With some older Olympus point-n-shoot and older Canons I've seen a difference between auto-ISO (or even full auto mode) using non-standard values such as 1600 vs 1643 in the EXIF. I haven't seen the software that's responsible for it and it might be just some bug, but that's pretty much the thing that comes to my mind. In that case using manual to fit into ...


2

I do a lot of technical imaging and I know about image noise. You question is to the point, let me give you a to the point answer. The difference in noise will probably be small and favorable in the short + bright exposure case. If I simplify a bit, noise basically comes from: noise related to the amount of photons of light captured during the acquisition (...


2

For the same FOV and f-stop, will total luminous flux increase linearly with sensor area? Yes, total luminous flux will increase. But photography doesn't measure exposure or brightness¹ using total luminous flux. It bases exposure on light per unit area. I.e., for the same FOV and f-stop, would the large-sensor camera only need 1/2 the exposure time to ...


2

To add to Michael's answer; Rec-709 and S-log2 are both gamma curves applied to the raw video data when a video is recorded. This is much the same as how a digital camera applies the 2.2 gamma curve when recording a jpeg, and Lightroom applying a 2.2 curve when displaying a raw file. Without a gamma curve applied, a raw image/file would not look the way a ...


2

It's the difference between the linear response of the digital sensor and the logarithmic response of human vision, which is taken into account by display devices such as monitors. An 18% grey card "properly" exposed is only RGB (127,127,127) after full gamma correction has been applied to the raw data. When using "log" recording, gamma ...


2

When I take multiple images for an HDR image I prefer to take the different exposures manually instead of using auto bracketing. I always start with the highest exposure. The highest exposure should be a representation of the shadows. This does not mean that you have to listen to the light meter in your camera. It just means that the shadows should look like ...


2

Here's the frame challenge answer (https://meta.stackexchange.com/questions/66377/what-is-the-xy-problem) You want increased contrast in the end result...this doesn't mean that you need increased contrast in the negative. The negative is simply a means to an end and it should give you the most detail possible so that you have the most amounts of "ends&...


2

You are running into 2 separate problems. And you are on the verge of solving both. Dynamic Range You already are playing with the exposure settings. Which basically will solve this issue. Your eyes have an enormous amount of dynamic range in light which means that your brains copes with a large difference between the light and dark portions of an image. ...


2

You need HDR(high dynamic range) photography. The range of brightness in your scene is too large for the camera to capture. The solution is to take more than one exposure, one set to capture the moon, one set to capture the dimmest things in your scene, and maybe some more in between. The camera may have a mode to do that (I have a P900 but have not ...


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