32

This is usually caused by the camera taking the scene as a whole and treating it as 18% gray. This is the way light meters (and camera meters) are calibrated to see the world. Scene mostly snow? 18% gray. Black cat in a coal mine? 18% gray. The camera doesn't know what you're taking a picture of, so it assumes that the scene is, on average, 18% gray and ...


19

All of these scenes have something in common: they’re high contrast with many, many stops between the shadows and the highlights. If you were to meter for the shadows, then you’d blow the highlights (image 3). Meter for the highlights, and drown the shadows (images 1 and 2). Because you set evaluative metering, the whole frame is being taken into account ...


18

Your camera's light meter measures brightness, but it can't tell if the brightness level it is measuring is a black cat in a coal mine or a white cat in a snowstorm.¹ It assumes everything you point your camera at is somewhere about halfway in between those extremes. ¹ Sure, the scene with the white cat will probably be brighter than the scene with the ...


17

During focussing, the lens is left at full aperture. It's only when you take the picture that it closes down to the appropriate f-stop. That's so you can see what's going on and so that the camera has enough light to focus. So, yes, a lens with a maximum aperture that's two f-stops larger than another will let in four times as much light during focussing. ...


14

are all current autoexposure algorithms really so basic as to just measure the average brightness of the scene? No. Do any cameras have advanced auto-exposure algorithms? Yes. It would seem that one could get much better results using for example some machine learning system that is trained with real, well exposed photos. It could then more ...


11

Flash duration is typically much shorter than most cameras' flash sync speed. If the flash only has a duration of, say, 1/1000 second (or 1 millisecond), it matters not if the shutter is open 1/250 second (4 milliseconds) or 1/25 second (40 milliseconds), the energy from the flash that is captured by the photo will be the same in either case. What shutter ...


10

Do not worry! Film has latitude -- it can tolerated a 2X error in exposure. Just continue as if nothing went wrong. Next time pay more attention to detail. Good Luck!


9

Seems like you're generally overexposing by maybe half to a full stop. You could just use the sunny 16 rule and stop down from what you get. Your results seem consistent enough to pull that off. A better idea would be to buy an external incidence meter, such as the Minolta IVF. They run very cheap (<€100) and will, once you get the hang of it, make sure ...


8

Your pictures will probably be overexposed by 1 stop. The effect depends on the type of film or sensor. For negative films, overexposing is mostly OK and you may not notice. It will result in denser negatives, perhaps with more grain than you would like, and with more shadow detail. You can "pull process" the film to try and compensate--ask the processor to ...


8

More an addendum to Hueco's answer than a stand-alone... In very high contrast scenes, unless you're going to bracket your shots for HDR, then it's better to err on the dark side. Shadows can be recovered to some extent in post, but blown highlights are forever gone. This is what Photoshop made of your shots, simply by hitting 'Auto' in Camera RAW. You ...


8

Is spot metering just an EV compensation? Metering, regardless of type, and exposure compensation are different functions with different purposes. Metering is used to obtain exposure exposure settings (ISO, aperture, shutter speed), while exposure compensation is used to modify those values. It is basically the difference between nouns and adjectives. ...


8

i'm inside a lit room with the shutter speed being 1/125, aperture is 5.6 and ISO is 400 but every photo i take is still really under-exposed. If you take a picture with these settings, and if it's not underexposed, that's a helluva amount of light in your "lit room"! I have nearly 400 watts of LED lights producing over 40 000 lumens on the ceiling of my ...


7

I have a home office with a large window that faces south (towards the sun in the Northern Hemisphere), so it is a very well lit room during the day time. I just followed your instructions with my Nikon D7500: Set to Manual mode (M) ISO set to 1600 Aperture f5.6 Exposure compensation set to "0" Shutter adjusted so the exposure meter in the viewfinder was ...


6

The sunny 16 rule applies in direct sunlight. These images all appear to be shot on an overcast day or in shade. (Which was wise on your part, as this will generally produce much better looking images of flowers) Shooting with the sunny 16 rule in shade/overcast would cause underexposure. I would agree with @xiota that the lab is compensating for any ...


6

Although the transmissivity of the lenses might explain this difference, part of it could also be due to the possibility that the 16-80's electronic aperture mechanism might be miscalibrated. I do not know if this lens's aperture mechanism has a greater or lesser tendency to be miscalibrated, but I assume the possibility is not zero. I agree with you that ...


6

Slight under or over exposures are not the end of the world. Shoot RAW and adjust in post. If the lighting is drastically changing, such that your settings would lead to blown out highlights or too dark shadows (risking ample noise on correction), then really the best solution is to let the camera do some of the heavy lifting. Go with Av or Tv mode (...


6

"In a room with plenty of natural light" That doesn't mean anything to me... a typical home/office will have a light level around 5-10 EV. Which would equate to a SS of around 1/200 to 1/8. If your SS is much faster than that the issue is probably what is being metered in matrix mode. Or it could be a metering offset (exposure compensation) as others have ...


5

We depend on the accuracy of our camera settings in anticipation that a “correct” exposure will result. In modern times, built-in metering and chip logic all but guarantee a good outcome. I think this is remarkable because “correct” exposure is a path laden with pitfalls. We place dependence on the f-number markings and shutter speed settings along with ISO ...


5

(This answer is based on the assumption that you are not using different "protective" UV filters, ND filters, Polarizing filters, or any other type of filters on either lens. If you have different filters on each lens, it should be rather obvious where the differences are mostly coming from.) Why is a lens darker than other ones when applying the same ...


5

This material has super low sensitivity to light. Additionally, it has no sensitivity to red so you can use a safelight. Assume an ISO of 2. The sunny 16 rule of thumb is workable. This will be: Shutter speed is 1 over ISO – this shutter speed is ½ second at f/16 in bright sun. Applying the reciprocity law – your trial exposures can be any of the ...


5

The simple equation assumes that the flash is effectively the only source of light in your image. This is a reasonable assumption in many cases, because since exposure works on an exponential scale, the amount of light from typical indoor room lighting is a drop in a bucket compared to that provided by the flash. See Do flash guide numbers assume some ...


5

Your journey into photography starts with wonder & confusion, but asking for lists of ideal settings will not help you learn… nor will they ever really be truly ideal. Yes, there are some guidelines for some of these things, but tbh, you will do better using your camera on Aperture Preferred if you want to learn how to use it - Avoid all the completely ...


5

The others have explained why the metering is causing issues, but I would like to add that active D-lighting actually underexposes the image in order to preserve highlights (~1 stop at max), and then processes the data/jpeg to restore midtones/shadows... IMO, it is not really helping you. Personally, with the D5100 I would be shooting in manual mode for ...


4

One "Grain of salt" point to keep in mind: A camera with an unreliable/out of tune shutter will offer headaches. Applying 'correct exposure' to a camera with an incorrect shutter speed or aperture control will not give you the expected results - If you still see errors in future photos after applying better exposure methods, then explore gear issues. [And ...


4

Operating a mechanical shutter close to the limit of its speed can cause loss of sharpness due to diffraction since then a significant amount of the exposure time is spent near at least one of the shutter curtains (or the shutter leaves, depending on type of mechanical shutter). Electronic shutter does not suffer from this particular problem.


4

If you can get in there beforehand & do some tests, that will benefit greatly. You need to check for several things... that the camera can even find focus in low light, especially if your subject is not going to be specifically lit. that your mood lighting is not going to have to be sacrificed [either by burning it right out or adding additional ...


4

I think it's more likely these photos were taken with a film that was rated at a higher speed, shot at that speed, and "pushed" in the processing to compensate for the "underexposure." Film then was relatively slow. One of the very fastest film was rated at "ASA" 1200 (Royal Pan X, for example) and processed in a high-energy developer or in rare ...


4

All lenses with the same aperture value (e.g. f/5.6) acquire essentially the same amount of light, because that number is relative to the focal length. The aperture of a 400mm/5.6 lens is about 71mm, while 500mm/5.6 is about 89mm. The speed of focus, however, is more related to the speed of the focus motors on the lens, and how many (and how heavy) lens ...


4

Yes, you could match the spot metering result by some degree of EV compensation, if you knew how much compensation. We typically may not know, so we instead meter it to be able to manage that. Spot metering only analyzes the light intensity in that small spot. Regular metering looks at a much larger spot, closer to the full scene. Suppose you are ...


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