3

This happens because you are using a variable max aperture lens. The aperture iris is not actually opening or closing as you zoom out – its actual opening size is staying constant. It's just that the entrance pupil, the apparent size of the aperture opening when viewed through the front of the lens, is changing size due to the movements of the lens element ...


2

The problem: (This is likely both over simplified, and wrong in detail. The last time I read about the zone system was 30 some years ago.) Ansel regarded film as portraying 11 signficiantly different levels of grey. Black and white film of the Pan-X (ISO 100) could handle about 10 stops. Tri-X was higher contrast and cold do something like 7-8 stops. Satin ...


1

The straight streak near top left is likely a meteor. I did an equalize of the image and saw several more squiggly streaks, albeit much smaller. My best guess is insects. The right hand one that appears to terminate at a star is probably a firefly type pulse that fades as it moves, the top one also fades but no distinct pulse, maybe faced away. To move over ...


1

This is in fact expected. Manual mode changes the exposure by adjusting exposure parameters: Shutter-Speed, Aperture and ISO. Exposure-Compensation is for adjusting an automatically metered exposure, so has no effect in manual mode. The meter you see is actually an indication of how far off the camera considers the set exposure compared to the metered one. ...


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