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1

Going from developer to stopper means going from basic to acidic milieu. Washing soda is basic because it is a salt of sodium from a comparatively weak acid. If you add a stronger acid, like citric acid, it will cause the carbonate ions (CO3--) to get protonised and then essentially fall apart into CO2 and H2O, with the carbon dioxide bubbling out. In ...


3

When an acid solution such as citric acid and an alkaline solution such as Caffenol developer are combined, chemical neutralization results. A salt solution is the product and carbon dioxide gas is liberated (abundantly). Similar reactions occur in baking. Such reactions cause bread and biscuit to rise (leavening). Let me add, generation of gasses during ...


5

The image appears, first, to be underexposed; that could be a camera problem (low battery or poor battery connection, failing meter system, failing shutter control circuitry) or due to sensitivity loss from poorly stored and/or expired film. On top of that, there are the light areas in the upper corners of the print (which would be the lower corners of the ...


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