CMOS sensors have analog amplifiers for each pixel.
To my understanding, the pixels are set on a single wafer which can only handle one communication at a time. ISO values are most likely sent out as to all of the amplifiers prior to the image being taken. Then, the pixels are most likely read out one by one in a set order and saved. (this is all speculation based off of the stuff I have learned from Wikipedia and YouTube. I'm not sure how much of this is correct and would be interested in knowing more)
How are ISO changes and pixels communicated in the sensor?