I am not very experienced in photography and wouldn't call myself a really passionate hobby photograph either, but I keep getting disappointed by my cheap phone camera when I want to take nice photos (nice = good enough for a desktop background or picture on my wall to really be proud of) especially on city trips, spectacular sunsets, or interesting light plays in the dark, and occasionally macro shots of plants or similar things in sunlight.
I am therefore looking for a camera that is good to capture large sceneries in town or nature, also at night, and provides enough possibilities for individual settings especially concerning light and colour nuances.
It should be something that guarantees me to be content with on the long-term (I once had a ~140$ compact camera that I was not particularly happy with because it had difficulty in catching bad light conditions, although I do like to try out different settings) and I am willing to spend up to 600$ for something that is really good, but am rather thinking of something around 200-400$ because I'm probably just not experienced enough to benefit from all the advanced features of a very professional camera.
I am not primarily asking for opinions on the one or the other model (although of course you are welcome to make suggestions if you know one that would be appropriate for me), because I am not even completely sure on what kind of camera would be best for me—I was thinking of a compact system camera (are there even good ones in my price range?), but am yet unsure what exactly to look for.
I would especially like to know what kind of camera would be best suited for me and what features are important for my needs, i.e., photographs of cities, landscapes, and night scenes with a fondness for interesting light and colour play. I have a basic understanding of what megapixel, zoom factor, and focal length are, but I would appreciate hints on what technical properties to pay attention to in my search.
I was made aware of this related question which is helpful in getting a hint of what type of camera to choose in the first place which is part of my concern, but doesn't sufficienctly address my primary question in what features to pay attention to for the more specific interests I described, which is why I don't consider this question an exact duplicate.
Since this is my first post, I am thankful for any improvement suggestions in case my question doesn't match the community's quality standards.