If you take a quick photo of the sun, it is unlikely that you will damage the sensor - or the shutter, but you may blind yourself a bit (speaking from experience here).
If you shoot a photo of the sun in LiveView, you can generate a lot of heat on the sensor from the lens focusing the sunlight.
Having said that, I have pointed a compact camera into the sun without issues using LiveView.
Heyfara quoted the manual which recommends you never point the camera at the sun, this is for two reasons:
1) The lens WILL focus sunlight and focussed sunlight can and will cause damage in the long term.
2) The manufacturer wants to take no risk for any damage resulting from a camera pointed into the sun.
Basically, you want to avoid pointing the camera into the sun for prolonged times. However, if you take a quick photo into the sun, it is unlikely to have negative effects - however there is no guarantee that it might not cause damage.
In addition, I have seen reports on the web that cameras such as an old Leica could suffer damage from the sun, for example because it uses a cloth shutter. In addition, a rangefinder camera lacks the mirror of an SLR.