Yes, there are several systems that work in the way you describe, where the off-camera lights can switch between different TTL systems, and the only thing you need is an on-camera transmitter unit that matches the camera system (i.e., "speaks" the correct electronic flash protocol, and has a physical foot pin configuration that matches the contact configuration on the camera hotshoe). The systems that do this include:
Canon, Nikon, Sony, and Fuji are the most commonly supported systems. Godox is probably the most popular for supporting six camera systems (they also do Olympus/Panasonic and Pentax) and having the lowest price tags on the speedlights/triggers as well as having speedlights, bare bulb flashes, and studio strobes in their system.
But these all rely on built-in radio triggers in the same-brand lights with a single exception: the Cactus X-TTL system. This system allows for cross-platform use of any TTL-capable speedlights since their add-on transceiver can do cross-brand TTL/HSS switching, unlike Godox's X1R add-on receivers.
And if you want TTL, naturally, the light itself must be capable of TTL; some of these systems integrate both TTL and manual-only lights.
However, in the Godox system, at least, when a new camera system is added to the Godox system, already-existing lights must be firmware updated to perform the cross-brand TTL switching. For example, Godox only recently added Pentax P-TTL support, and firmware updates have been issued for the AD600/AD400/AD200 strobes and the V860II speedlights, but the AD360II and TT685 speedlights have not received such an update and cannot (yet) switch to perform P-TTL.
I have a Godox TT685-C (for Canon) TTL/HSS speedlight that I had to upgrade the firmware on, but that I can now control over radio in TTL/HSS with remote power control from a Godox XPro-C transmitter on my 5DMkII, an XPro-O transmitter on my Panasonic GX-7, and an XPro-F transmitter on my Fuji X100T. And the flash will indicate on the LCD display which "brand mode" it's currently in: