unfortunately your question is not very precise. So lets say you have an event in time and space, which you want to take a picture of.
The problems are:
- being at the exactly right point in space
- taken the photo at the exact right moment
OK, let's look at number one. Say that this is a given, since the camera(s) need to be fixed. It's a severe complication that this has to be in vacuum. Technically speaking putting a commercial camera into vacuum requires a large volume tank. Depending on the strength of the vacuum, you might get into a pinch with some sealed parts of the camera that might take destructive offense at the idea of so/too much differential pressure. This includes a potential lens, which I would recommend for taking a sharp picture.
Number two then becomes the real killer. The position is fixed, so everything has to happen in the time domain. Let's say, the exposure synchronization on the camera end is solved (e.g. open shutter, closing after the exposure). Then the timing of the flash becomes everything. Let's say you have a 1cm window in space where you can take a reasonably well framed image. With an object that moves at 300m/s this yields roughly a trigger window of 1/30000s, or about 30 microseconds. In terms of electronics this is not really fast. But your flash only lights up for 100 ns, which is a bit more complicated. Normal lasers will not allow you to do that, in terms of switching on and off. So you need some kind of beam shutter for the laser -- but 100 ns seems still pretty fast, even if you have only a very narrow laser beam at shutter position.
In principle this should be possible. But my guess is that there are two difficulties. First you would have to solve the mechanical problems everything happening in vacuum. Maybe just make a window to look from the outside? The harder problem is the accurate synchronization, since you have to synchronize at least three systems: your item of interest being in the spot where you want it, the laser flash system and everything that is in between.
Of course, you could do it also like this: http://flash.desy.de/