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4

With my long exposures, I meter for the scene and then add whatever ND amount needed and disregard the camera’s meter from there on out. That being said, it wouldn’t hurt to do some testing to determine more about your particular filter’s characteristics (I’d recommend using a digital camera for the testing). Take a regular exposure, manually adjust 10 stops ...


3

Many built-in flashes have no mode in which there is no preflash. This means that in S1, your external flash will be triggered then, and may fire too soon to be included in the exposure at all. So S2 is needed to even work. You're right that the flash won't be factored into the metering in this case. You'll have to factor it in yourself, using manual ...


2

Should I rather meter without filter and then add 10 stops, or meter with filter, to get accurate exposure? Neither. Film doesn't respond linearly at very long exposures. This is known as reciprocity failure or The Schwarzschild Effect. For most films, any exposure longer than about one second are affected by this. You should meter without the filter and ...


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E-TTL II is a minor software update for E-TTL. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canon_EOS_flash_system#E-TTL_II which says: E-TTL II is a software improvement on E-TTL and is now a standard in all EOS cameras introduced with or after the Canon EOS-1D Mark II in 2004. E-TTL II is implemented in the body, not the flash unit, and therefore can use ...


2

The SK400II doesn't suport TTL or HSS. In a monolight, you have to upgrade to something like the QT series, or one of the AD battery powered lights. The trigger supports all the Godox 2.4GHz lights, so it has controls for TTL and HSS. Not all lights support these features though.


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No. While the X1R-C and XPro-S are compatible in terms of firing and M power control, the Godox X1R receivers do not perform cross-brand TTL in the way the built-in radio transceivers in the Godox TTL full-sized speedlights (TT685, V860II, V1) do. If, say, you were to purchase a Godox TT685-C and checked its firmware version was v3.1 or later, you could ...


1

At 1/2 a second the odd bar of exposure is not visible. The images looks bright enough but it predictably blurry. I tested 1/40 and 1/80 also. At these speeds the bar is not visible but the images are very underexposed. This pretty much confirms that your problem is in the timing. I would guess that your camera uses a shutter that opens from top to bottom, ...


1

What am I missing? That it's a timing issue. The S1/S2 modes are "dumb"; there's no communication between the camera and the flash going on. A simple sensor on the flash detects when a flash burst has gone off, and then fires the flash. As you noted, S1 fires on the first burst sensed; S2 on the second burst sensed. With flash, the camera cannot meter how ...


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In addition to the electric types mentioned, there were also early chemical (actinometer) and purely optical (extinction meter) designs. Some modern digital camera designs however will use the (CMOS or CCD) imaging sensor itself as a light meter (which is technically speaking a silicon photodiode based meter). Also, mind that there were multi-segment CDS ...


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