There is an element of XY problem in the question. What you probably want is not organizing photos efficiently, but finding photos efficiently. Framed that way, deduplication has approximately zero benefit (if you're out of disk space a bigger disk is a better answer).
Framed as improving the finding of photos, any first step is pretty much a step in the ...
This is a partial answer. I will add to it as I work out the details.
Exiftool (https://exiftool.org/) can be used to extract lots of interesting metadata tidbits from images.
Starting at my image directory:
exiftool -r -ImageSize -Model -DateTimeOriginal -ImageNumber .
Image Size : 299x400