31

No, changing the exposure or using an ND filter will not help you with this, since both will only brighten or darken everything by a certain factor. Your problem is the large relative difference between the bright and dark parts, the dynamic range. And your eyes can capture a much larger dynamic range than the camera's sensor. In order to have a photo ...


29

You've got the sun almost in the frame. This is causing huge amounts of veiling flare — light bouncing all around, reducing contrast. You'll get better results from a different angle, or at a different time of day. Did you have a lens hood? If so, positioning the camera so the hood can better do its job would help. And, yeah, it probably isn't doing you any ...


23

From a functional standpoint, yes, you could essentially achieve the same effect with multiple stacked filters as a single high-density filter (say a 10-stopper.) There are a variety of concerns to be aware of, however, regarding stacking multiple filters. Filter quality: The Lee "Big Stopper" 10-stop ND filter is pretty high quality glass filter There are ...


18

Absolutely you can. Many square filter holders are specifically designed for this: The Lee Filters systems (Sev5n, 100mm) have optional front threaded rings designed to hold a polarizer in front of the ND filter(s). The NiSi 70mm and 100mm square filter holders feature a specially-made thin polarizer filter meant to stack behind the ND filters, closest to ...


16

The number associated with an ND filter is actually the denominator (bottom) of a fraction. So an ND2 filter should be thought of as 1/2 the amount of light being allowed through the filter. For example, setting the lens at f/2.8, and using an ND2 filter would make that an f/4 situation for a total of 1 stop difference. ND4 filter is allowing 1/4 the light ...


16

I've been looking around for this information too! I finally found the answer (after stumbling across your question first) at this website. According to that page, the formula is: OD = -log T SN = 1 + (7/3) OD where T = transmission rate, OD = optical density, and SN = shade number. For example, shade #10 gives SN = 10, OD = 27/7, and T = 0.000139, or ...


15

As a general rule, exposure time depends directly on the amount of available light. So if you measure the time needed for some exposure at early dawn, it would probably be bigger than the time needed after the sun rises. Assuming you want to capture the atmosphere and colors of a sunrise or sunset, the amount of light would probably be too much for a really ...


15

Aside from moving water, what other motion blur applications can one achieve with an ND filter? Pretty much anything that moves in relation to the camera. One can make people moving through a scene totally disappear by using enough density to require an exposure time of several minutes or longer. Imagine pacing a train while your assistant drives on a ...


14

Why did my ND filter produce washed out exposures? You're shooting straight into the sun with a dirty, unshaded, and flat surface on the front of your lens. The image demonstrates all three classic types of lens flare: Veiling - General loss of contrast due to strong off-axis light sources, often caused by such light interacting with dust, particularly ...


13

There is a point where lenses transition from being aberration limited to being diffraction limited. This means that peak sharpness will increase up to a point as you stop down but will then start to decrease again. If you don't care about depth of field then use of an ND filter is preferable to stopping down past this point. Of course ND filters aren't ...


11

We can actually work this out using the information given to us by the metadata and the photo itself. This is going to be a rough science, but good enough to help choose a filter. Firstly, we have the exposure information in the photo's metadata. This tells us it was taken at f/22 for 105 seconds at ISO 100. Secondly, what does the photo itself tell us ...


11

Yes, that cross effect is common with all variable neutral density filters, especially with very wide angle lenses (12-17mm). You'll have to do some combination of zooming out or backing off the maximum density. I did some experimenting with a mid-range filter in the blog : Marumi ND2-400 Variable ND Filter Review. The effect was almost non-existent at ...


11

There is very little advantage of leaving the ND on when it comes to still photography. Aside from offering a small amount of protection to the lens the filter will do nothing except increase shutter times. There may be a few cases where you really want very long exposures indoors. If you're shooting videos with your DSLR then it makes sense as your shutter ...


10

For the ND's that use decimals (i.e. .3 .6 .9), each .3 is one stop less light that reaches the sensor. So, a .9 means a 3 stop deduction in light to the sensor. For the ND's that use a number (i.e. 8X), they operate under the power of 2 exponentially. So, an ND 16 is a 4 stop deduction in light (2 to the 4th power is 16).


10

It's easy to lost perspective when referring to stops due to the fact that it is a logarithmic scale. When talking about ND filters each stop represents a halving of the intensity of incoming light. Like grains of rice on a chessboard it starts to add up very quickly. A 15 stop ND filter reduces incoming light intensity by a factor of 32,768. That's enough ...


10

I have to disagree (to a limited degree) with most the answers you've gotten. For a picture like this, a longer exposure will probably do a little to reduce contrast a bit. Not much, but a bit. This happens in at least a couple of ways. First of all, over the course of a 30 second exposure, the sun will move a little bit. That will do a little to soften the ...


9

That is an exposure of less than 2 mins. You need an ND filter to be able to expose that long in daylight without overexposing. An ND400 will be sufficient for this, given a low enough ISO and small enough aperture. That is the darkest filter I own and I have used it for similar exposures in broad daylight.


9

It really depends of the kind of pictures you want to take. Look at "What are the uses of Neutral Density (ND) filters?" for information about potential ND filter uses. You can also take a look at "What are neutral density filters and how do I use them to create long exposures in daylight?" to know more about those filters. A direct way to know the ND ...


9

We have no idea of the brightness of the scene you are photographing. Are you on a Mediterranean beach? In a forest at night? Put the camera on automatic, take a photo, and see what iso, aperture and shutter speed the camera chooses. You should aim for the same exposure, but just adjust other exposure settings (including choice of ND filter) so that you can ...


9

Is this combination of ND filter and long exposure responsible for having such even lighting on the scene in the former image? No. The reason for the ND filter is to allow the long exposure, but the reason for the long exposure is to "smooth" the stream. This combination is a popular stylistic choice when shooting moving water.


8

You will want a neutral density or ND filter. It essentially darkens all parts of the image giving you a uniform exposure that is darker then it would be otherwise. Depending on the camera, some have a built in ND filter, or some accept a filter accessory that you can screw on to the lens or drop into the filter slot. Personally I would buy a CPL(circular ...


8

At least with diffraction you can do full-frame sharpening since the softness is distributed evenly... Some disadvantages of an ND filter: An ND filter adds another layer of glass to the lens and will increase the chance of flare, depending on the quality of the filter. Strong ND filters on wide angle lenses can (because an extreme angle of view changes ...


8

It doesn't matter much which filter you get. If you get the "wrong" one, you will have gained invaluable XP that will contribute to your continued advancement in photography. Options to consider: Don't get either filter. Since you will be using a tripod, you can use your current filter (or no filter) to take and blend multiple exposures. You can also play ...


8

TL;DR: Get the best 10-stop filter you are willing to afford. There are several to choose from, compared to shopping for a 9-stop filter. In no particular order, some considerations: This is very specific to the exact location you're shooting, but in my experience, the waterfall scene is darker than the Sunny 16 rule indicates. Usually, there's a bit of ...


7

I think your first thought is correct. The "tilt/shift" (really just tilt in most cases) miniature model look is mostly to do with extremely shallow depth of field. In this case the most interesting building (to my eye) is the one in the bottom left which has blurred trees in front and behind giving the impression of very shallow depth of field. The other ...


7

The general approach I use with ND filtration is to compose and meter your scene first without filtration. I also use the Lee filter holder, which has the handy feature that allows you to clip/unglip the actual filter holder to/from the lens adapter fairly easily. The general process to expose for any amount of ND filtration, including the Big Stopper or ...


7

Its probably due to a narrow aperture. On professional grade lenses, you can usually stop down a bit and still maintain a rounded aperture, however on cheaper lenses, or on all lenses at very narrow apertures, the opening becomes polygonal. That causes the diffraction of light as it passes through the aperture to produce a star pattern (the exact nature of ...


7

I think the main cause of that effect is using a very small aperture. If you're trying to get a long exposure by stopping down to f/22 or smaller you'll most likely get that effect.


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