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Some models of 35mm film cameras, upon loading advance all the film from the cassette on to a take-up spool. For these models, the first picture is taken on the end of roll, likely about frame # 36 or # 24. As you take pictures, the film advance actually rewinds the film back into the cassette. This scheme was used on a few models, it protected exposed film ...


24

In olden times we had lots of tricks up our sleeves. We would mount negatives on a viewing screen. This is milk-glass illuminated from behind (X-rays are viewed this way). We then took a picture of the negative. The result was a positive suitable for projection. In truly olden times, these were called “lantern slides” because ancient projectors, before ...


20

My antique wooden Kodak™ day-light loader (ca. 1905) was made with a removable spool of thin (now quite brittle) perforated celluloid with raised rubber edges. The film was sandwiched between the layers of the roll. The celluloid strip was wide enough to accommodate all sizes from miniature to very wide 128 (2½" wide!). The roll of film was wound inside ...


14

If you're talking about the traditional slide viewers, they don't. The slide is a positive colour slide, all a slide viewer can do is shine light through a slide. If you put a negative slide, or a standard 35mm negative into the slide viewer, then the negative image will be projected.


14

Film is not brighter, it has different tone curve. In your examples highlights and shadows from negative are translated differently to the print than digital. With traditional films like the HP5 the curve is S-shaped. Also, with the black and white example, each film has certain tonal response to different colors, your digital conversion to bw has a ...


12

I would say TIFF is probably the best format. JPEG 2000, like JPEG, is still a lossy compressed format when you really try to save space (the lossless version can compress a bit, but not nearly as much as the lossy form, and some forms of the "lossless" wavelet compression still can't fully reproduce the exact original image.) When scanning in an original ...


12

This used to be a standard technique - it was the only method to make copies of slides, or motion picture film. For slides it was done with a macro lens and bellows - have a look at a fancy Nikon one here. It was so common that special lens, optimized for 1:1 enlargement, were made just for this purpose. Example are the Rodagon D series. In the movie ...


11

When we develop film, we must take care that the film is properly wound on the developing spool. This is an example of improper loading of the spool. On the reel, the film is coiled so that it can be process using only a small light-tight tank. Improper windings allow the film to touch. Film in close contact will stick together. Once wet, the gelatin that ...


11

You might look at the Wikipedia Photography Technology timeline. A few key points from that reference: 1909 – Kodak produces 35 mm motion picture film on an acetate (less flammable) base 1913 - Kodak introduces panchromatic film (approximating the color sensitivity of the eye - older emulsions were not very sensitive to red light). 1925 - These innovations ...


10

The longevity of developed photographic film is a variable. This depends on the quality of the processing. If the process is well done, the fixing step has gone to completion and there will be no unexposed, thus undeveloped silver salt crystals. If fixing is incomplete, these crystals will in time self-reduce and blacken. If present in quality, the ...


10

You say in a comment to another answer that the camera used could not have been a pre-loaded disposable compact. But that is how the film was loaded in more than a few varieties of them. The film was transported through them 'upside down' from left to right and the lightproof cassette was used as the takeup spool. The cassette was also upside down compared ...


9

The image captured on photographic film is called a latent image. Translated, this means an image invisible unless somehow treated to cause a visible image to appear. The latent image is best when the treatment (developing process) occurs soon after exposure. As time passes the latent image weakens. This decline is due to chemical changes and outside factors....


8

There is the potential for variations in many of these steps, but the first one that jumps out at me is that you used the same ISO, aperture, and shutter speed for both exposures. Also, answering your question in a comment on Rafael's answer, "The thing that bothers me is that the exposure meter on the analog camera was showing that the image is too bright ...


7

Long-term degradation of film depends on a few different factors including the type of material they were stored in, along with temperature and humidity of the storage environment. That said, from the four types of film most people are exposed to (pun intended), B&W negative and Kodachrome slide film are perhaps the least affected by age. B&W film ...


7

The C-41 negative film process arose from movie film that was marketed just after World War II. Previously, processing color films was a far more arduous task. To simplify, three dyes, cyan (blue-green), magenta (red-blue), and yellow are incorporated into the film during manufacture. The dyes in this film is incomplete. The three dyes are all missing the ...


6

Most labs I've seen that do black and white processing call it generally D-76 processing, but they could use any number of other chemicals. HP5 is about a standard a b&w film as you'll find, so if the lab claims they do black and white processing, they'll be able to do HP5. Ilford's site has a PDF for all the development solutions and times that they ...


6

It appears you have an intermittent light leak that is reaching the film while it is wound tightly on a spool, possibly the take up spool inside the camera. The distance between the bands in your sample and the differences in intensity look like the same event caused all three at a time when the area with the darkest band was on top and the areas with the ...


6

Soak in a tray or tube of water at room temperature. Add two teaspoons of Dawn dishwashing detergent per quart (liter). Soak for several hours and test the paper to film adherence. If not free, continue soaking. In time the film will release from the paper. Now wash the film for 10 minutes in running water at room temperature, follow with a 30 second dip in ...


6

Normally, push processing is used with underexposed film. The typical effect can be seen in the film, Barry Lyndon, nearly all of which was push processed: Still image from Barry Lyndon Overdeveloping the film grows the grains bigger, so that it brings out details in underexposed areas, and reduces detail in normally exposed areas. If most of the ...


6

Scanning handles removing the overall orange mask in color negative film. Scanning as positive, and then postprocessing invert does not remove it, inversion simply turns that orange mask to a deep blue overall. NOT Bluish, but very strongly deep blue. Then additional work to try to remove it. This is a difficult job to do in digital postprocessing (not ...


5

In case you just want to view them, have a look at http://petapixel.com/2015/03/22/how-to-turn-an-ipad-and-iphone-into-a-negative-film-viewing-station/ for a quick solution (of course, you can use other light sources, etc., but the general idea is the same). For positives, there used to be dedicated slide viewers and slide projectors, but mostly for smaller ...


5

"Best" is a relative term, depending on your goal(s). :) If you want the most flexibility (control over relationships between density, contrast, shadow and highlight detail), scan the negative and manipulate it in post-processing. The higher bit-depth you can get, the better for smoother gradations if you'll be making big adjustments in post. If you're a ...


5

There is some latitude with regard to ISO sensitivity. Digital cameras often are less sensitive than the rated "base" sensitivity. The manufacturers tend to round up, possibly because it can make test results look better than they actually are. It also helps to preserve detail in the highlights. With film the manufacturers tend to round the sensitivity down. ...


5

If it’s limited to just the first few frames, there are two likely causes: It could have been caused while rolling the film in the developing holder or while removing the excess humidity on the film after the water bath. It could also be that the camera had some debris (left over by improperly cleaning it during the CLA, find another place for its next CLA) ...


4

Questions about the orange mask of the C-41 and earlier C-22 negative color film keep reoccurring. Maybe I can shine some light on this subject. As you know, black & white film photography generates an image by chemically depositing a layer of metallic silver on film. This silver laydown is in proportion to scene brightness. This film thus displays ...


4

Cold reduces reciprocity failure, and is used particularly for astrophotography. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photographic_hypersensitization#cite_note-15. My own experience with Kodachrome (RIP) was that very cold weather reduced the blue-green cast of nighttime skies and cityscapes. Note that this could lead to frostbite, by the time the camera is ...


4

If you load a roll of film into a camera, the leader will be fully exposed and will be black upon developing. You can pull a bit extra out of the roll. Or in sunlight you can take a few shots at the longest exposure time (or in bulb mode for say 30 secs) and that should produce black. Or if you don't have a film camera, just pull a length of film out in ...


4

Not sure of your location, so can't really offer any specific stores/services, but developing/printing a roll of film is typically around $10-15 USD at a typical (chain/non-specialist-photo-lab) in the US. I'll bet you could negotiate a cheaper price with the manager of a specific store for 100 rolls at once. Prices usually include developing, so it may be ...


4

They could simply not have the scanner calibrated, or they have some arbitrary values. You need to analize the negative and check if it is really that overexposed. But also take into account that even between film manufacturers the look has diferent results.


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