21

The focal length is the distance from the (theoretical) center of the lens to the image plane. On the large format camera, there's a lot more camera between the lens and the film. The lenses are also often relatively simple — there's no need for a focusing mechanism in the lens itself, for example. @osullic gives the example of the Schneider PC TS Makro-...


18

It depends on how you define camera. In a sense, digital large format does exist, just not exactly in the way we might expect. There are commercial products called 'Digital Scanning Backs' that fit medium and large format cameras. Instead of a full grid that can be exposed from one side to the other very quickly via a focal plane shutter, they have one ...


12

The general/umbrella term is using camera movements. A tilt/shift (or perspective control) lens for an SLR is a very limited way of bringing such movements to a type of camera that doesn't natively have them. Rail-type view cameras usually have a full suite of movements available; field cameras (flatbed view cameras that usually fold up into a sort of carry ...


9

Its not quite restricted to large format, but is most common there. Whats going on is that on a large format camera, the front "standard" which holds the lens can move independently of the rear standard, where the film is. What a photographer does to avoid converging verticals is not to tilt the camera upwards, but to shift the front standard so that ...


9

The camera doesn't matter. The lens might. Many older lenses used glass that contained chemical elements that can shift color over time. Most notable are the lenses that used glass containing radioactive thorium oxide that yellows and eventually browns as it ages. Some of the most well known lenses containing thorium were several of the Kodak Ektar and ...


9

Focus is not the issue here. The issue is coverage. Any lens gathers light from a cone in front of it (angle depending on the focal length), and projects it to a cone behind it (angle depending on coverage). So long as the lens is far enough away from the film plane, there exists some plane in the real world that will be focused on the film plane. But......


8

It is not about the size of the format, but how the lens moves with respect to the film or sensor plane. This particular case B maintains the 3 planes parallel: Lens, film plane, building. Again, this has nothing to do with the film size. You can google these kinds of lenses for a SLR camera: https://www.google.com.mx/search?q=slr+shift+lens Or some ...


6

The "telecompressor" you mentioned is a focal reducer, a device that concentrates the image in order to project it onto a smaller sensor. This approach reduces the backfocus distance (the distance from the back of the lens to the sensor). So it only works on mirrorless cameras using lenses designed for DSLRs (which have sufficient backfocus distance to make ...


6

Filters are mounted using a “filter adapter”. These were aluminum rings with a diameter slightly larger than the lens barrel. Various sizes were commonly available and we selected one that just slipped over the rim of the lens. The rim of the adapter was fluted. We rolled it on a table, reforming it to fit snugly. The other end accepted a filter with a ...


6

You can do an approximate conversion by rounding 320 to 300. But also it's two and a half decades old. You mentioned adding a stop for every decade after the purchase date. Do you know the purchase date? If it expired in 1981, then it was probably not purchased (read: manufactured) in 1981. My suggestion would be to cut one sheet into test strips, and take ...


6

Short answer, yes, this issue is expected. That Copal No. 1 is probably between thirty and sixty years old, and in professional service would have been expected to receive a CLA (Clean, Lube, Adjust) service every two to five years. Amateurs like us don't use a shutter anything like as much as a commercial photographer would have done before the digital era,...


5

Once one understands the advantages of a medium format camera it becomes obvious that there are situations that such a camera would make sense. It is unlikely that a client will specifically request such a camera, but it is possible that the needs require resolution, sharpness, dynamic range, and contrast that you may only be able to achieve with a medium ...


5

A lack of uniformity in a mundane expanse such as the sky likely traces back to the developing technique. The first thing I would do is re-fix these negatives in the hope that they were under-fixed. The rule of thumb is to immerse a small piece of undeveloped film in the fixer. This is performed in a lighted room. Time how long it takes for the fixer to ...


5

I am not sure where you live, but in my part of the world (central Europe) an attic would be a terrible place to store film. They do get rather hot in the summer. For a film stored in cellar (another popular storage place) I would try shooting a sheet at ISO 100 and see. I would not buy nor trust a film known to be stored 40 years in an attic. TRI-X is a ...


5

Large Sense LLC is advertising their LS911 8×10 digital camera, as well as their LS55 5×5 digital camera. Both of them are in the prototype or development stages at the moment, so they're not exactly available. The LS911 can be had for only $104,000 (anticipated price). So while they are not quite available to purchase, they do (almost, sort of) exist...


5

While some care is needed to avoid accidental light leaks, light-proofing a container enough to safely store film or paper is not a colossal effort. Something as simple as duct tape over a few suitably sized paper envelopes is easily more practical than lugging a Paterson tank. Black construction paper can make envelopes, or use a maker to darken a ...


4

Your shutter is a Linhof-branded Synchro Compur. (Only the bezel part is Linhof.) It appears from the picture you posted to have a press focus (the little square tab/button thing near the shutter speed indicator); that button will open the shutter for focus after the shutter has been cocked, and will close if you re-cock the shutter. (Note: not all Compurs ...


4

Only if you prefer the ease of use with folding bellows as compared to bag bellows. Bag bellows can be prone to sag in a way that partially blocks some of the light from the lens. Depending on the type and number of movements used, it may not always be obvious from just a cursory look if part of the bag is in the light path or not. They're also fussier to ...


4

Wrap the sheets in aluminum foil, make two such envelopes. This will do the trick.


4

The white plastic pieces don't look like they belong. When comparing your photos to my Crown Graphic, the bed and rails appear the same but I definitely don't have anything that looks like the white pieces in your photo.Your hinge doesn't appear to be out of alignment, so I'm thinking that someone placed something under the inner section of railing to shim ...


4

Here are some differences between paper and film that will affect the image resolution acutance, resolution, and resolving power. Paper: The emulsion normally used for paper is relatively insensitive silver chloride in a colloidal suspension, orthochromatic (blue sensitive), thickly applied to a fibre base with a baryta layer for brightness and a starch ...


4

It's certainly possible - Danny Spence (http://nightflyphotography.blogspot.com/2010/07/large-format-astrophotography.html) has done some astrophotography with 15 minute exposures on 4x5 film, and a search for "large format astrophotography" will pick up some other examples. I remember reading something about LF astrophotography in a book several years ago -...


4

Apodizations filters in large format lenses were very popular in the 1980s. The baffles in such lenses can significantly affect the diffraction characteristics of such lenses. Although lenses such as the Rodenstock Imagon had been around since the late 1920s, they had a resurgence when several 35mm camera makers introduced lenses for 135 format cameras that ...


3

I feel your processing times are off. I agree with Marcus that the development time for your sheet film is too short. It also looks as though you may not have covered the sheet of film completely at once with developer.Either way, ensure that you have sufficient solution to fully immerse each sheet of film. Change your dilution to allow longer development ...


3

Take a look at these two Schneider lenses that both have 90mm focal length: The first has coverage for "35mm" format, the second coverage for large format. I am not sure, but I think the main reason for the difference in size is the fact that the large format lens is a "simpler" design, i.e. fewer elements/groups. The reason a large format lens can use a ...


3

The thing that changes with pinhole camera size is the best pinhole diameter to use. The optimal pinhole diameter is such that your pinhole-to-paper distance is the "Fresnel length" (please google for definition) of the pinhole at some representative wavelength of your filter bandpass. If you don't use a filter then you can guesstimate the sensitivity of ...


3

Depth of Field (DoF) is always a function of at least these variables: Lens focal length. Aperture expressed as a ratio between the diameter of the entrance pupil (often referred to as the effective aperture) and the lens focal length. the distance from the image plane to the plane of focus. The size of the image plane, often referred to as the camera's ...


3

For depth of field, you can use (for most practical purposes) the ratio of sensor diagonals — the crop factor. See Can a smaller sensor's "crop factor" be used to calculate the exact increase in depth of field? Exposure per area is the same. Other factors may also depend on sensor or film size and not translate in this way, of course. A ...


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