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Do you mean the 7 sided polygon on the top? That's your aperture blades. What is the origin of the hexagonal artifact of direct sunlight/spotlight photos? You're catching flare from the light, it is bouncing between lense elements, and eventually exiting in that orientation. You're at a very small f-stop with lot of integration time to pick up subtle flare. ...


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I don't think this is flare, though flare can often look similar to this. This looks more like a drop of moisture, perhaps a single melted snowflake, was on the front of the lens and refracted the bright light from the streetlamps in that way. Out of focus water drops on the front of a lens can often demonstrate the "onion skin" layers in an ...


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The bright polygon spot in the sky can be a small water droplet on the lens. Or, more probably, on the filter if you used one - the spot size and shape implies some distance between the optical irregularity that creates the spot and the lens. The spot has a symmetric interference pattern suggesting that the light source illuminating it is not too much on the ...


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This artifact falls under the heading of flare / ghost image. It is caused by internal reflections. The camera lens is a complex array of multiple polished glass lens elements. Some elements are cemented together, some are air-spaced. Each has two polished surfaces that reflect away about 2% of the light that otherwise would traverse the lens. The 2% that is ...


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Nothing to do with your sensor, these are reflections of some bright light on the individual lenses in you lens. My bet is parasite light from the lamp post under which you were when taking the picture (lens hoods are also useful at night). The dark spots could be birds.


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One thing that I want to point out is the APS film format (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Photo_System) did use a native 16:9 aspect ratio. From what I understand about the system the other two aspect ratios "C" (classic) and "P" (panoramic) work by cropping and storing some information in the magnetic portion of the film so that ...


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As was learned by ‘Old’ naval hydrographers when they drew sketches at the bottom of their charts showing the view of approaching islands where they would accentuate the height by some 20 to 30 percent. The resulting image would then more accurately represent the view as seen by human eye and interpreted by the human brain. Take as an example one of your ‘...


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Adding on to @Orbit's answer regarding area of an inscribed rectangle in a circle, the following graph shows the area of 4:3, 3:2, and 16:9 aspect ratios. Area versus aspect ratio: square: 100% (maximum area inscribed by a rectangle in a circle) 4:3: 96.0% 3:2: 92.3% 16:9: 85.5% Nothing earth-shattering, but, you get about 10% better area utilization of the ...


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The 35mm camera evolved into an image size that is 24mm x 36mm. This format was chosen by the German camera maker E. Leitz. One of his engineers, Oskar Barnack designed a 35mm still camera in 1913. At that time, Thomas Edison was making movies using a 35mm wide film stock. This film has perforations along both edges to accommodate mechanical transport in the ...


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Aspect ratio can be anything if you're making your own cameras and coating your own plates. But if you use equipment manufactured by others, you're limited to whatever is actually made and sold. While you can crop to whatever aspect ratio you like, the full image will always be whatever is captured. Papers, frames, and other supplies are also available in ...


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I expect that this is mostly due to technical limitations. DatAperture wrote it very nicely on Reddit: Lenses project circular images. To get the most resolution out of a lens, you should use a circular sensor. But those would be really wasteful to produce en masse (imagine how much you'd waste cutting circles out of a sensor wafer), so we have to use 4-...


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