Go black and white:
check out the work of Ansel Adams etc. Black and white film with a red filter can be very dramatic and can be reproduce in an image-editing program via desaturation and playing with the levels of each channel.
The first option is to study the landscape beforehand. Carry a compass wherever you go and see where are the east and the west. Then you can probably plan a bit more when you need to be.
A lot of photography, especially about nature is about patience and endurance. It sounds like a small joke but as commented, wake up really early or be prepared to stay up ...
Options to consider:
Wake up early (before sunrise).
Stay up late (after sunset).
Use a Graduated Neutral Density filter.
Combine multiple exposures. HDR.
Color grading (often used in film/video)
Use a low-contrast, low-saturation profile ("Log" format)
Apply a color-lookup table.
B&H: Understanding Log-Format Recording
Fstoppers: Color ...
I think the photographer has to choose their subjects based on the conditions. Given that you cannot make bright sun into sun set or sunrise I think you have to pick a composition that works in some way given the sun.
As examples I have used the way the clouds cast shadows to create interesting contrast in the brightly lit trees.
Or find reflection or ...