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156

Originally, film formats were arbitrary and specific to each camera model. For example, Kodak started making "pocket" cameras in 1895, but each new design used a different format. By 1908, they decided to simplify the confusion with a numbering scheme, calling that first format "101" and continuing the numbering up from there. In fact, the "120" medium-...


58

The first photographic images printed in newspapers were actually wood engravings meticulously hand-copied from a photograph printed in the normal way. By the 1890s, however, prints were made in essentially the same way they are today: through halftoning — printing different tones as patterns of small dots varied in size and spacing. By the 1929s, this ...


47

Stieglitz and his photo, "The Steerage" are hailed as great not because of its compositional excellence (at least one aspect of the composition is brilliant, and some of the lines in the frame can be seen as a kind of "proto-Cubism"¹) or the technical merits of the photo. "The Steerage" is most significant because it was one of the first times a photograph ...


35

It is related to a heated substance, albeit in a somewhat theoretical way. The substance is an ideal incandescent black body, which would radiate a given color within a given color space at a given temperature. The location within the color space vs. temperature is called the Planckian locus, and I don't claim to understand everything in that article, but ...


34

Before roll film there was sheet film. With sheet film a photographer could select particular films with particular emulsions individually for every shot they took. Applicable characteristics of a film's emulsion would include sensitivity/film speed, fineness of grain, color response/balancing, contrast, as well as the overall 'look' that different films ...


26

I suspect the answer here is that the format is written as "RAW" to match other common file format names which are acronyms such as JPEG, GIF, MOV, MPEG, etc. Nikon, Canon, Pentax, Hasselblad, Olympus, Sony, and many other manufacturers all write the format in all caps, so at this point it's a de facto standard. There is a distinction to be made between a ...


26

Wikipedia's introductory statement on color temperature relates them quite well: The color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Black body radiators are an idealized concept, that radiate an energy spectrum with a peak intensity at a frequency ...


24

Luna 3 did something as complicated as you thought: It took photos on a film, processed it in a kind of onboard minilab, and then scanned and radioed it back home in analog way not unlike an old fax. Funniest part was that Soviets didn't have the technology of radiation-hardened film, but Americans did. They used it against Soviets in high-altitude spy ...


22

Kodak started making "pocket" cameras in 1895, and each new design used a different film format — different sizes, aspect ratios, cartridge types, and orientations. By 1908, they decided to simplify the confusion with a numbering scheme, calling that first format "101" and continuing the numbering up from there. So, that's the scheme — the numbers correspond ...


21

You are correct that the term "macro" means large scale (e.g. macroeconomics), however its use in photography is relative to microphotography, that is imaging using microscopes. The tradition definition of a macro lens is one that can achieve a 1:1 magnification, which means the image projected onto the recording medium is life size. So for a common APS-C ...


20

My antique wooden Kodak™ day-light loader (ca. 1905) was made with a removable spool of thin (now quite brittle) perforated celluloid with raised rubber edges. The film was sandwiched between the layers of the roll. The celluloid strip was wide enough to accommodate all sizes from miniature to very wide 128 (2½" wide!). The roll of film was wound inside ...


19

There were economic reasons, but they were not about getting to amateur market; it was more like getting any market. The main merit seen in early digital photography was speed of delivery (no need to develop films), so news agencies were the first targets. During the dawn of digital photography, a full frame sensor would have been enormously expensive to ...


19

Not all photography is art, not because of some failure, but because it never meant to be that. Some documentary photography may be art, but most isn't. Some of it is just recording a moment. Most photography is decoration, or otherwise functional, not meant to be art, let alone upper-case-a Ahhrt, or Fine Art. "What is art?" is a constant question — in ...


19

Amongst the myriad online pages documenting the Viking series, here's one which states clearly The Viking Lander camera design was very different from vidicon framing or CCD array cameras. The lander camera was a facsimile camera with a single, stationary photosensor array (PSA), and azimuth and elevation scanning mechanisms. A lander image was ...


17

The colour temperature is related to the black-body radiation produced by hot objects. The black-body radiation curve, shown below, shows the approximate intensity* curves at each wavelength for the radiation emitted by bodies at 5000K, 4000K and 3000K. * It actually shows the spectral radiance curve, which is a kind of flux. But you can think of it as an ...


16

The original cameras didn't use film at all, so there was no noise from any film advance mechanism. Instead they used materials that were inserted in the back of what we now refer to as view cameras while being protected from exposure to light. Each image required changing out the entire back of the camera and replacing it with another glass plate that had ...


15

I think the popularity of that image comes from its historical context. Up to then, the most highly regarded photographic work was black and white. Ansel Adams landscapes for example. Eggleston took images of everyday things, and in color. Reminds me of Andy Warhol, whom he seems to have been affiliated with. He seems to have influenced a lot of other ...


15

That particular ring, by itself, is the aperture stop. The normal operating mode of the Land Camera (150, at least) was a coordinated exposure system that coupled particular shutter speeds and apertures using the EV system. From the Land Camera 150 user manual, The shutter dial adjusts the camera to the right combination of shutter speed and lens ...


15

I'm guessing you're referring to the Lytro by Lytro, Inc. It's an example of a light-field or plenoptic camera.


15

The first mainstream applications for electronic image sensors (be it Image-Orthicons, Vidicons, Plumbicons, or CCDs, or CMOS active pixel sensors, be it analog-electronic or digital workflows) were in video, not in still images. Video followed form factors similar to movie film. In movie film, 35mm (equivalent to full frame still) or even 70mm were ...


14

It is indeed a rule that comes from film cameras. On point 4 the answer is simple: Multiply the focal length with the crop factor of your sensor. Because the sensor is smaller than a full frame sensor, it will not cover the full image circle, cropping out a smaller image. This has the effect of looking like a longer focal length. E.g. on Canon, a 50mm ...


14

When Canon released the first 1D, APS-H was simply the largest sensor they could get away with, economically. They followed it up with the 1Ds which was full frame. However the 1Ds was slower than the 1D, and offered less reach with telephoto lenses, so was less popular with sports and wildlife photographers. For this reason Canon chose to continue offering ...


14

According to this NASA PDF, Apollo 7 and 8 did not take hand-held cameras, instead using vehicle mounted Maurer or custom-built cameras. Apollo 9 had a Hasselblad Superwide, Apollo 10 had no hand held cameras, and Apollos 11 through 13 had custom built Hasselblad Lunar Data Cameras. Apollos 11 and 12 also had a 'Closeup Stereo ALSCC' camera. There is a ...


14

Just my notions, but some people did not take so many pictures. It might take weeks or months before they would expect to accumulate 36 exposures. Rolls of 24 were a little less expensive, and less to process, and served the immediate need better. About the same reason you might buy only a few tomatoes at the grocery store, instead of a bushel. Roll film ...


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