It doesn't work.
As you can see, the light does not follow a single path from the object to the projected image / camera sensor. Far an in-focus image, we put the object at S1 and the sensor at S2.
We can add another lens and project the image at S2 to a sensor on the other side (e.g. S4). We call the image at S2 an intermediate image.
This doesn't currently exist on the public market. I can see what you're saying, and it's certainly an interesting proposition.
Currently, when we want to capture an image that uses exposure ranges too great for the camera, the normal solution for this is to use some form of HDR photography:
Mobile phones have HDR modes built in.
Most DSLR's have an AEB (...