28

Your intuition is essentially correct but there are a few important points. When the lens is stopped right down, only light heading for the centre of the front element will make it into the picture, so the whole front element isn't used for every point of light hitting the sensor (though all of it is used for some point of light). Even when the aperture ...


9

The first generally known case of taking two different exposures of the same high dynamic range scene and combining the results was around 1850. Gustave Le Gray did it to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea. Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two into one picture in ...


6

You haven't given enough information to produce a definitive answer, but here's how I suggest you can help determine the information yourself. I own and use 2 sets of ND grads from 1–3 stops, both hard-transition and soft-transition, plus a few specialty transition ND grads (reverse ND grad, "sunset strip" ND, 0-transition/continuous ND grad). Hard vs. ...


3

Difficult to say without seeng an example. But taken from the few describing words it sounds very much like a dynamic range issue. If so then a gradual ND filter could help - depending on the concrete composition of the image - or you apply some HDR techique. HDR, if properly done, does not need to thave this horrible ovedone "HDR style". Those pictues can ...


3

Not every pixel will use light from all light reaching the lens. Your assumption about all light going to a single point is correct only if you take a single point from your object. If you take another adjacent point from your subject, that point will be projected next to the previous point. In the end you have a focus plane (projection), not just a single ...


2

If it doesn't look like this, then it is not a reverse grad. Found at 2filter.com, http://www.2filter.com/prices/Hitech/HitechReverseGradual.html


2

I've got a graduated (orange) "sunset" filter I bought on impulse and used once. In the right circumstance it can enhance a sunset, but to be honest, nothing you can't do in post processing. If doing B&W photography, a graduated red filter could be used to darken the sky and make the clouds more dramatic (using the red half of the filter for the sky, ...


2

If I understand what you're indicating then it's the slightly darker blue of the sky seen between the branches and leaves of the trees. This isn't entirely chromatic aberration (although that could exist too in high contrast areas), but from your example it looks like an effect of the color filter array on the sensor, the demosaic/interpolation algorithm, ...


2

It may be chromatic aberration that you see if there are any purple/green fringing around leaves. That generally occur in high-contrast objects. If it's this one you can fix this by shooting RAW and than selection "Remove chromatic aberration" in Adobe Camera Raw software or DxO Optics Pro 8. If by blending, you mean it's not balanced to the ground than you ...


2

It's all based on personal preferences. If you're unsure then perhaps your initial purchase should be a cheap set that you can experiment with until you discover what density does what you wish. A set with 1, 2, and 3 stop filters can be used in various combinations to get anywhere from 1 to 6 stops of density. Graduated filters also benefit greatly from ...


2

I can share with you what I did and what worked for me. It may not directly help you(or it might) but it may help others in a similar situation. I have a Canon full frame camera and my widest lens that I use with this setup currently is the Canon 17-40mm f/4 L. Essentially what I did was purchase the standard Cokin P holder, modify it a bit, then position ...


2

Functionally, there isn't much difference. The difference really comes down to very small details of each technique, or precisely how the source images for each technique were taken, environment constraints, etc. Given the following assumptions: shooting RAW; no movement in the scene (i.e., no heavy wind blowing trees around, etc.); zero color-cast of a ...


2

I can't think of a technical reason. Other than I would tend to change the ND grad more often than remove the polariser when doing landscapes.


2

I don't have a good answer for your specific question, but my desire for precise ND graduated filters has led me to think about solutions somewhat similar to your problem. To begin with, it's instructive to understand the current state of the art for how graduated ND filters are created. As an example, here's a video from Lee Filters about how their ND ...


1

There are various filter thicknesses. Most square filter holders are modular and can be disassembled/assembled using various pieces to allow for filters with different thicknesses. Most 100mm square/rectangular filters are in the 2-3 mm range and many filter holders can accommodate anything from 2mm to 3mm thickness without needing any changes.


1

I actually had a similar issue to this not so long ago, the simple fix was simply to press the h key as a shortcut, this resolved it for me.


1

A great difference: graduated neutral-density filters (GND) are preset to cut brightness only in specific areas. High-dynamic-range applications (HDR) merge multiple photos of the same subject taken at different exposures. A GND is useful, for example, in a scene where the sky is very bright and there is a dark, level, horizon. HDR is more generally ...


1

The safe answer is that it is a combination of over-exposure and chromatic abberation, which is then very visible over the black leaves. But there may be more to it than that. Camera sensors are not colorimetrically identical to human eyes, they may see a bit into the infrared and/or ultraviolet spectrum too. IR light may add to the red channel, UV light ...


1

... weird blue leaves when shot against a bright sky... – Doctor Atomo I doubt the blue leaves are caused by the Bayer matrix on your sensor because an image produced by a Foveon sensor also has the same effect. I suspect they are chromatic aberration caused by your lens or diffraction of skylight around the leaves. The resolution of the sample images is ...


1

Your text isn't very clear. Also you didn't put a photo/crop to show the effect. bright sky "bleeds" into the leaf 'silhouettes'... hmmm... Perhaps do you want to say blends ?? Perhaps it is a phenomenon like this? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chromatic_aberration_1_14_2009.jpg If yes, then it is called Chromatic Aberration. One of the biggest ...


1

The question is semantically not clear. "Before" can mean "first", opposite of "after". "Before" can mean "in front", opposite of "behind". And it depends what exactly comes first, i.e. closest to the front element. But my experience is this: When I use an ND, for example a 10-stopper, then first I put the CPL onto the front of the lens, so I can lock M ...


1

Putting the ND filter last, or closest to the lens, will cut down on reflections which result in lens flare. Where-ever there is a surface in front of the lens (such as a filter), there is the potential for any small unwanted reflections bouncing from the lens to be reflected back into the lens and form lens flare. Here is an example of the type of lens ...


1

Polarizer filters are different, but similar to ND filters. ND filters block all light equally, but polarizing filters block light for specific angles of the wave. In combination, the ND filter reduces the overall light equally and the circular can be used to further reduce specific light angles. So, for example, in an extremely bright scene, you might ...


1

A polarizer filter is also a weak ND filter (roughly 1 stop). So you can just use it to have a little more reduction in brightness in case the ND filter is not sufficient.


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