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34

I agree with apparently everyone else that the "ethics" depend entirely on context. Here are some examples where I think editing is straightforward: 1800s: You could get a "headless portrait" with your head in your lap or on a pitchfork. headless portrait http://www.retronaut.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Headless-Portraits-From-the-19th-Century-3.jpg ...


19

There's a tendency these days to think that photo editing is a modern phenomenon, when in fact it's nearly as old as photography itself. How 'ethical' editing is depends on the genre and the expectation of the viewer. One would expect photojournalism to use little editing other than basic exposure adjustment, whereas an artistic landscape or portrait shot ...


17

Fine art paper is usually made using 100% cotton rag content, is most often acid-free and therefore is suitable for archival purposes since it addresses the problem of preserving documents for long periods (see "How Long Will Your Photo Prints Last?" at PhotoShelter Blog for example). It qualifies as matte paper, thought it certainly has a texture, a look ...


14

I'm a gallery represented artist and I want my work to stand for what it is when you see it, not the process I went through to make the piece. I don't do things like add sky, not because it is "wrong" but just because it isn't what my vision does. My tools are my camera, my lenses, my tripod, my miscellaneous gear and of course my laptop and host of post-...


8

I adopt an "opt out" approach. I assume everything is edited unless it is explicitly stated that this is not the case. I use the same approach, therefore I wont label every photo as being edited, but if I capture something particularly unusual or hard to believe in which case I'll say "this was straight out of camera!", or "this hasn't been composited in ...


8

In part, this is historical in nature. B&W film could generally capture a wider dynamic range than color film, and thus it was more practical when trying to capture intense detail in shadow areas of an image. This subtle dark detail is very key to expressing many darker and deeper moods in imagery, so B&W had a natural advantage. While modern ...


7

Technically speaking (and not erring on the historical side): It is easier to accentuate a sense of structure in B&W as the color information is missing. This is specially true if one shoots in "uncontrolled" environments like street where too many randomly-colored objects can become distracting. B&W allows for more drama by pushing contrast and ...


6

I believe it is Andreas Gursky's Rhine II, sold for $4.3 million in 2011. See this Telegraph article for some more details, including some other expensive prints. Pedantic aside: Whether it's the most valuable is different to the most expensive in my mind, and even that is probably different from the highest sale price, which is all I've mentioned here (...


5

I wouldn't say that there are any rules for it. You are the photographer, you make the rules and you decide to how many prints you want to limit yourself. Some points to think about: Make clear that there are two options, one aluminium and one paper, this way people won't be upset if they shell out for the alu option without knowing that there is a cheaper ...


5

You should only ask yourself, if the edits fits into the genre or not. Of course works for documentary and journalism should generally be free of any manipulations, but even in those genres editing should be ok as long as it doesn't affect the message that the photo is supposed to deliver. For anything else that you can call it "art", any kind of ...


5

People can do whatever the rules allow and/or what they can get away with. You don't have to like it. FWIW (possibly only what you paid for it) I personally tend to feel that photos are usually (not always) diminished by editing that substantially alters what was captured or seen (which are certainly not always the same thing) AND I accept that the ...


4

The New York School of photography is not particularly related to the more well-known New York School of abstract expressionism. Although there's some overlap in time (and of course place), the photographic movement began earlier and has different characteristics. The Michael Hoppen Gallery in London had a New York School exhibit in 2008, and from their ...


4

The advantage of a B&W camera is that there are no color filters, therefore the sensors catch more light and no demosaicing has to be done. This leads to far better image quality; the more light the sensor catches, the less noise you have and demosaicing algorithms can obviously only approximately render the RGB values of a pixel (and you get worse ...


3

Those are obviously two different photographs. The position of her right hand differs significantly between the two pictures.


3

Ben's answer was entirely correct when the question was asked, but the record was beaten in November 2014, when Peter Lik's "Phantom" sold for $6.5 million, although it may be worth noting that this was a private sale without any public record of the price. A minimal amount of greater detail is available from e.g. this PetaPixel article.


3

In the days before digital was high-end (like 10 years ago for home or budgetless) the wet photo developing and printing process was more interactive. The art maker (as opposed to a snapshot) would take an active role in making the print come out the way he wanted, including additional mods at any step along the way. Color was done by an automated machine. ...


3

Stock photo is the one which communicates a message. Artistic photos tend to make a viewer to look for the meaning of the photo, unlike stock photos which must be clear in what they stand for. Stock photos are used mainly for business, for promotion, therefore they need to be specific.


3

Here's my take on it: Every image out there is edited to some degree, even if only to change contrast, colour balance, or crop it to fit the size needed for the frame. For B&W, the conversion to greyscale is implicit (and yes, using B&W film is editing in that respect, you're making the decision to remove the colours present in the natural world). No ...


2

In general there are two basic usages: as a methodology or as an art form. As a methodology it is about creating images that fit a concept. A lot of advertising and stock photography would fit in this category. "Bananas" or "Bicycling" or "Nurses" might be three concepts that a photographer expresses through as series of photos, often in the hope they might ...


2

It's fine art if the photographer decides the picture belongs in a gallery or museum (while it can be sold it has to fit the artist's vision, and it's commercial value is less important). It's commercial art if the photographer tries to sell prints to hang on the walls of homes and businesses (so it must be an image that can be sold, even if it doesn't ...


2

Fine art photography is not necessarily black and white. Black and white photography has been around longer than color which is one reason why, in the historical world of the fine arts, you might find more of it. In the world of contemporary fine art, I doubt you would find that black and white is predominate. It would be better to go to the library and find ...


1

I agree with you that the marks appear to be from the transport mechanism in the printer. Hot press board (vs cold-press board) is so named due to the manufacturing process of the paper. Hot press board is quite smooth and flat due to extra calendar rollers being used under heat and pressure by the Fourdrinier (paper making) machine. (I'm showing off that I ...


1

Baryta is a naturally occurring mineral technically known as barium sulfate. This snow white clay is used as a white pigment ingredient for paint. It is used as a brighter for art papers. Photo papers are coated with baryta to get increased whiteness and a higher reflectivity. We view photo prints by reflected light from a nearby light source. Light plays ...


1

On the print itself you'll want the print number ( #/edition number if you ever decide to do limited runs), your signature, title of work, date printed. The sticker idea is a good one for your metal prints or etch the details in to ensure permanent placement <- I'd recommend the latter. You really don't need anything extra unless your client requests a ...


1

I've grappled with this for awhile now and haven't found any consistent answers online, so I've muddled along with my own system. It may/may not be "right" but I offer it in case it's helpful. My prints are plaque-mounted (on wood), and only as I need them (i.e. I don't do any runs of prints, I only produce them individually as needed). I write on the back ...


1

The Leica MM has a different sensor, which allows a far better B&W image to be made. To ask for a "perfectionist's" camera with lens for under $3K with lens is completely unrealistic. Perfection doesn't kick in until you get to the $20K range, at least, plus lenses. The Leica S system is a place to start looking, if indeed you are a 'perfectionist'. $...


1

Out of the box, a specialist camera like this doesn't make any sense. In theory Moire-effect might go away, or you might capture more data on tonality, so the sensitivity could be higher. But none of these are actual problems in actual photography anyway. (They can be fixed in post or by buying a flagship camera with high iso-ratings at low noise.) Many ...


1

Fine art photography has nothing to do with the saturation or de-saturation of the image. It has to do with composition and the picture actually "saying something" to the observer. Thus, Art. Black and white photography is very impactful. It relies on contrast and clarity instead of color gradients so it has a tendency to get a strong emotion accross ...


1

As answered already, the context determines the official rules. Mostly, there are no official rules, except in specific photo contests. So largely it is a question of ethics and what viewers value most. Personally, I do believe the value of a photo (or better said, image) is not only in its result, but also in its process. I believe I am in a minority to ...


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