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44

Going from negative film to a printed image is a two-step process. First, the negative is developed — the latent image on the film brought out and then fixed in place. Now you have a piece of translucent film with a negative image on it. Second, to go to a the final print on paper, you then essentially repeat the process, shining light through the negative ...


36

The sale price of film is going up because of “economy of scale”. In other words, the more you make of any particular article, the lower the cost to make that article. Digital imaging has overtaken film imaging and this movement continues at a rapid pace. Thus as film sales drop, the cost to manufacture goes up. It is as simple as that!


33

In the darkroom, place a piece of the material you will be developing, flat, face up, on the work space. Place a handful of coins on this material. Using a timer, remove a coin every 5 minutes. 12 coins will cover 1 hour. At the end of the time span, develop the film or photo paper. A perfect darkroom will leave no evidence. An unsafe darkroom, reveals ...


31

Make negatives specifically for the course: Ask yourself what you want to actually teach in your class, and come up with negatives to function as aids to those lessons. If all the students are going to learn is how to mix chemistry, expose photo paper, and what order/timing to dunk the sheets in the tanks, then why on earth is anyone Paying for that when ...


28

There are two and a half parts to this answer. First part: if you are in LEO (low Earth orbit) (The only EVAs outside LEO were part of the Apollo programme) then you're inside the Van Allen belt and the radiation environment is therefore significantly nicer. No humans have been higher than LEO since Apollo. Secondly, if you're outside the Van Allen belt, ...


26

Well, it seems obvious that the film did not advance between shots. Whether that's because of user error (film not installed right so it didn't catch on the advancing mechanism) or a hardware issue with the advance mechanism not working properly can't really be determined without more information and/or inspection of the camera... Try taking a couple shots ...


23

I'd guess you're under-exposing a long way & the lab is having to work them really hard* to get anything like an image out of them; hence the amount of noise in them & no real blacks anywhere - but I'll leave it to someone more versed in film photography to post a fuller answer. *From comments - I had mistakenly used 'push' as a term for which I ...


20

Doing double exposures with the k1000 requires that you cock the shutter using the lever while simultaneously holding down the release on the camera bottom. This allows the shutter to cock while not advancing the film. Check to make sure that this release button isn’t sticking in.


20

My antique wooden Kodak™ day-light loader (ca. 1905) was made with a removable spool of thin (now quite brittle) perforated celluloid with raised rubber edges. The film was sandwiched between the layers of the roll. The celluloid strip was wide enough to accommodate all sizes from miniature to very wide 128 (2½" wide!). The roll of film was wound inside ...


20

If you are talking about locating a light leak in a changing bag for loading film into magazines and cameras without a darkroom available… Periodically, to check the condition of your changing bag, put a bright light inside the bag through one of the sleeves. Close up the bag. Sit in the darkroom or a closet with no light for a few minutes to let your eyes ...


18

I thought an illustration would be helpful. It's the same principle as an overhead projector, another mostly obsolete piece of technology: Where instead of textbook text on a transparency, the source image is a film negative, which is also transparency. The screen in the image would in turn be another paper film, which is developed in the regular process....


16

If you want black, black velvet from the fabric shop does a really good job. Here is a sample tabletop, the full light is directly on it. This was a ISO 200 f/8 photo with flash. It is a better grade called dressmaking velvet, which does better than the cheaper grades. The fabric shop will know what you want. I don't know about using it in sunlight, try ...


15

Here’s Fuji’s annual report: https://www.fujifilmholdings.com/en/pdf/investors/integrated_report/ff_ir_2018_all.pdf The page you want is page 48. What you should notice is that photo imaging made up 15.7% of the business - to which photo imaging revenues were roughly 2/3. While imagine revenues have shown increases from 2014, they also appear to be ...


15

What you need, is Vantablack. This awesome material reflects only .04% of light - way too little to affect those silver halides. That being said, I don't think it's commercially available. Perhaps there's a similar knockoff on the market? All daydreaming aside, instead of trying to block all light from reflecting off the object and being recorded...why not ...


14

Use something with a matte finish or matte fibres. Take a magnifying glass to a fabric store along with a light and something to take reflective light metering with. Shiny synthetic fibres [and even some natural wools] might look black, but are at risk of casting bright specular reflections toward the camera which increases the apparent brightness. You ...


13

While radiation above the atmosphere is indeed higher than on Earth, it is not so high as to ruin photographic film as quickly as your question would imply. The amounts you reference from NASA are exposures during a mission, not a short space walk. In a NASA study on photographic film sensitivity during the shuttle years, NASA basically found that radiation ...


12

Oh, goodness — everything. Film, camera, lenses, lighting, style, fashions and trends, whether or not photography is art, everything we see today. But the "forums" were... more literal forums — people getting together in person to discuss in photography and camera clubs. And, instead of the blogosphere of today, so many periodicals. To get a taste, do a ...


11

When we develop film, we must take care that the film is properly wound on the developing spool. This is an example of improper loading of the spool. On the reel, the film is coiled so that it can be process using only a small light-tight tank. Improper windings allow the film to touch. Film in close contact will stick together. Once wet, the gelatin that ...


11

You might look at the Wikipedia Photography Technology timeline. A few key points from that reference: 1909 – Kodak produces 35 mm motion picture film on an acetate (less flammable) base 1913 - Kodak introduces panchromatic film (approximating the color sensitivity of the eye - older emulsions were not very sensitive to red light). 1925 - These innovations ...


10

While I've never been to India, I've travelled in other countries of Southeast Asia. These are countries where you see vibrant colours everywhere. If it were I, I would shoot a reversal film because of the gorgeous results you get with such vibrant scenes. My preference is Fujifilm Provia, but many people rave about Velvia. If you can, try to shoot a test ...


10

One of the users on Photo.net is a chemical engineer who worked at Kodak for ~30 years. He posted the following information in a thread over there about Life expectancy for refrigerated film: In all cases where we are using film past its expiration date, the only safe approach is to try a roll OF EACH PRODUCT and evaluate it before shooting the rest ...


10

Do not worry! Film has latitude -- it can tolerated a 2X error in exposure. Just continue as if nothing went wrong. Next time pay more attention to detail. Good Luck!


10

Sorry to report that the inaccuracy of the film advance mechanism plus the uncertainty of the position of initial starting point makes this a nearly impossible task. If you rewound the film back into the cassette and attempted to reposition the unexposed frame for a retake, most likely an adjacent frame would be double exposed. Best advice is to let this ...


10

No. After you advance the film, you can't re-expose a previous frame on a Nikon FM2. the inaccuracy of the film advance mechanism plus the uncertainty of the position of initial starting point makes this a nearly impossible, as Alan Marcus points out. If you don't advance the film on a FM2 after an accidental exposure with the lens cap on, you can use the ...


10

Jargon of photographic chemical mixing and preparation: Concentrate — Chemical that comes bottled in kits and must be diluted. Stock Solution — A chemical that has been mixed from concentrates or powdered formula. This solution must be diluted with water for use. Working Solution — Photo chemicals at the correct concentration for use. As a rule of thumb — ...


10

The purpose of the final wash is to get all of the chemistry (really, the fix) out of the film (or paper). If you don't do this then your film will be damaged by the chemistry over time. It's hard to tell how much chemistry is still in the film, and washing is a very easy process to do, so people tend to be very conservative. Ilford did some research on ...


10

Usually, it does not affect or limit the aperture or shutter speed at all. Rather, it tells the exposure meter where the center is. In some ways, it's exactly like exposure compensation dials. If the camera has a program mode, it's essential information for getting exposure right. If it doesn't, like the Pentax K1000, it just shifts the exposure needle — if ...


9

First, I advise against developing the rolls from your trip. Beginners face numerous pitfalls, and what can go wrong will go wrong. Having said that, it’s lots of fun to develop film, so go for it -- just select sacrificial rolls until you get past the learning curve. Now about developers: All developers are reducing agents, they reduce (split apart) the ...


9

Radiation encounterd during space missions, effect on film was well studied by NASA: The Effects of Space Radiation on Flight Film (pdf) A few days in space is generally the equal of about 150 days aging of the film. Some of NASA moon photography shows visible signs of degradation due to background radiation. Do peruse the NASA study – it answers all ...


8

There's quite a bit of difference, actually. Size of the Negative Medium format is a somewhat encompassing term. When one talks about 35mm (135 film), it's most often a camera that shoots a 36mmx24mm frame. There have been specialty cameras that use the 135 format to shoot other sizes, but most 135 cameras shoot this fairly standard sized frame. Medium ...


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