Assuming this is a single exposure, it must have been taken on the night side of the Earth, and the impression of daylight can be caused by the moon, like in those night time photos.
Taking this ISS video as a reference, the relation of brightness of the nighttime earth surface, airglow, stars and ISS components, seems to be about right.
The same way details on the surface of the Moon and a few stars are visible in this photo:
The surface of the Moon, at least the parts that have visible details, are not lit by direct sunlight. Rather, the Moon is illuminated by "Earthshine".
In the case of your photo taken from the ISS, it appears the Earth is being lit by "Moonshine" ...