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Washing photo materials to remove the processing chemicals has been well studied. Both photo film and photo papers are based on a binder consisting of gelatin. In other words, dispersed in gelatin is the metallic silver image (black & white) or dye image (color). Gelatin is a long chain polymer; under the microscope, it resembles transparent spaghetti. ...


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The rule of thumb is to keep all processing temperatures as close as possible to each other including the water rinses. The problem that arises with temperature fluctuation is the stress it puts on the emulsion (a colloidal suspension of silver halide in gelatine). Uneven swelling and shrinking due to thermal changes can cause reticulation (failure) of the ...


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The rational part of me says that you should go with tfb's answer. But my own laziness has led me to do a lot of stand-dev. If you'd like to experiment, put 5mL of Rodinal in per roll of film at 1:100 ratio. Pre-soak your film for ~2min in water at developing temperature. Dump that and immediately put in your Rodinal. I twist agitate for 1 min at the ...


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I'll point out that Rodinal is a speed-reducing developer. You'll likely lose between 1/2 and 1 stop of speed when using it so Tri-X at 200 is probably about right. Pushing anything in Rodinal is a recipe for bad results for the same reason.


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The general idea with developing film is that one has supplied enough light to the film for a nominal exposure, and in order to take the next step, a chemical reaction must occur to bring out that latent image. What do you think happens if your developer were halfway to exhausted when you used it? You'd get only a partially developed piece of film. So, we ...


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In the development of B&W film rolls, people often talk about their result being flat or glowing. I would urge you to take this with a grain of salt, as no one staring at a print is thinking of the negative. The negative is a vitally important step - but that's just it - it's a step. Many modifications can be made during printing. Because of this, one ...


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Flat and glow are examples of descriptive words that may have different meanings to different people. Flat often refers to lack of dimensionality. It may also refer to reduced contrast. Glow often refers to the presence of a halo around bright objects. (To shine with or as if with an intense heat / embers glowing in the darkness.1) It may be considered ...


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These are words used in the jargon of photography. Black & White images can display a myriad of tones packed between a pure white and a pure black. Such an image zip, in other words, glowing. Conversely, an image can be flat. This image has reduced shades of gray, perhaps a muddy black with no true white. In other worlds it is flat. Flat can be an image ...


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If I had to guess, I would say that this image was underexposed and then corrected for (perhaps unwittingly) when scanning. Two reasons for this guess: You mention you metered using the camera's built in reflective meter. I believe the FM2 uses centre weighing for its metering. That means that it determines the exposure mainly on the light in the centre of ...


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All fluid baths should be close to the same temperature including water rinse, wash water, and washing aids. Film has multiple coats of material both front and back. Each layer, (there can be a dozen or more), has a different coefficient of expansion / contraction. If the temperature range is extreme, these various layers will slide. The least problem will ...


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The absolute minimum time is 0 to get a usable image. The process, however, is incomplete and the residual chemicals in the emulsion will degrade the image over time. The longer you wash (the more hypo you remove from the emulsion) the greater the archival stability of the image. For rapid access (processing breaking news film before electronics), we would ...


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These spots seem like typical dust spots. I encounter them regularly and are usually quite easy to remove in Lightroom or Photoshop. In the darkroom, it is more of a hassle. After meticulous dust removal pre-exposure, dust may still show (significant) spots on the print. Here, retouch kits are used. You won't ever get rid of dust. You worded it nicely, it's ...


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Adox Rodinal is a one shot developer, meaning it is not meant to be reused (https://www.adox.de/Photo/adox-film-developer/rodinal-adonal/). Mix up your 1+50 for your immediate needs and discard when done developing. Check your local laws for instructions on discarding, as this will vary from place to place. For example, my city doesn’t care about used ...


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