Depending upon what you are shooting, there is a way to cheat to get an apparent deep depth of field and bright image. Tilting either the lens or the image plane can align the focus to a plane other than the typical perpendicular.
From www.australianlight.com :
Normal Perpendicular image plane
Tilted Image Plane
TL;DR: You can't make a large lens to increase the brightness, but you can increase your depth of field by focusing at or beyond the hyperfocal distance.
You didn't say what you were photographing, but with anthotype, cyanotype, etc., I imagine you're probably just trying to get basic photos of mostly static things. Landscapes/cityscapes, pictures of ...
No. The aperture number determines the ratio between light emitted and light captured. The more light you capture, the more angles of the emitted light you need to catch and different angles only converge in the focusing plane. You can warp the focusing plane to better fit the subject (full-frame cameras and tilt-shift lenses do this), but the more light ...