The fact that you have the same settings will mean that you will get the same exposure.
Using the same focal length in a tripod will give you the same composition.
Any other aspect of the image quality will be affected by the lenses and their quality. Vignetting, contrast, chromatic aberrations, distortion (not all lenses produce the same distortion at the same focal length)...
This happens because there is not a unique way of building a lens with a given focal length. Manufacturers design their lenses using different numbers of elements (single glasses inside the lens) and group them in different ways, in addition to extra features such as coating layers.
Usually, the less number of elements light has to pass through, the better, as you keep a greater part of the quality of the image. That is the reason why prime lenses tend to be better in image quality terms than any zoom lens at their focal length, and the reason why wide range zoom lenses are more versatile but don't stand out against mroe specific ones.