From the comments you've made, it sounds like your computer can open .NEF files that were not present on that notebook at the time of your crash. And other file types are also affected (.doc and even some .psd / .png image files, too?), not just .NEF files? I would have said it sounded like you needed to re-install a driver, from your initial question. But it sounds like file corruption occurred. I think you may have a damaged drive and may want to try to restore files. In future, I strongly suggest regular back-ups of anything on a notebook. Notebooks get stolen and are very prone to damage. If you have a notebook that includes an optical drive (DVD), you can replace that with a frame that can hold another notebook hard drive and use it to internally back-up your boot drive/SSD. Otherwise, there are cloud-based solutions if you have fast broadband and a multitude of other things you can do, in future to add redundancy to your data storage. If I were you right now, though, I'd look at removing that drive from your notebook and installing a new boot-drive, then try to restore data from your old drive. Performing any "write" operations on a failing drive may not help matters when it comes to reading out corrupted data (may add to the corruption or over-write files that are not yet full "lost").
Really, this isn't a photo issue, IMHO. (Hopefully I'm wrong, but what you describe sounds like much more than missing codecs.)