I own a Fujifilm s7000 bridge camera. Now I would like to buy a budget DSLR to follow The Digital Photography Book, Part 5: Photo Recipes. Most of the recipes use 70–200mm f/ 2.8 lens. I'm thinking about buying a Canon 10D; would that camera be a good choice for a beginner?
The Canon 10D was a ground-breaking consumer DSLR 15 years ago. It will certainly meet the minimums you might need to learn photography, but because it is so old, many people would find it frustrating. It is very slow by modern standards, and doesn't have many of the conveniences people expect from cameras today.
That said, your current S7000 camera is also from that era, so... maybe you won't be so for off. However, I think you'll probably be better off looking for a deal on a camera at least a decade newer.
In an earlier version of your question, you note that you're looking to spend under £150. Note that you won't be getting a 70-200mm f/2.8 lens for that price on any camera body.