Is there a way to determine what's wrong with it?
If you're asking whether there's any data in the image file that would tell you how the image was created, the answer is maybe. Digital photos generally include metadata in a format called EXIF. If there's EXIF data attached to your image, you can see it with many image viewers. However, that data may have been removed at some point if the image was edited or otherwise modified. If it's there, the EXIF data can tell you things like the camera and lens make and model, shutter speed, aperture, ISO setting, which focus point was selected, and so on. If it's not there, you're out of luck.
Your best bet is to talk to the person who took the photo. They might be able to provide the original image, which is more likely to have its EXIF data in tact, and they might remember for more than the EXIF data can tell you about how they took the photo.
Ultimately, the problem is that it's just not a great photo. The equipment used might have contributed to that, but it's not the cause. You can take a good shot with a smartphone or a compact camera, and you can take a bad shot with a top-of-the-line DSLR.