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I’ve copied pictures from my faulty SD card. Most of the photos seem to be ok, but some have big gray parts where originally the photo was.

How can I make sure that all the photos that seem to be ok, are really ok?

Can it be a problem to have damaged .jpegs in the same folder as the correct pictures?

What can I do about that? I want to lose as little as possible.

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    Possible duplicate of Is there a tool to check the file integrity of a series of images? – mattdm Jan 12 '18 at 1:32
  • SD cards internally implement error correction codes. A side effect is that when an error that isn't correctable is made it is spread out over a larger area so errors are typically quite apparent and not subtle small changes. – doug Jan 12 '18 at 3:25
  • @doug Yeah, but if some of the files are coming back definitely corrupt, as described here, it's beyond that. – mattdm Jan 12 '18 at 3:27
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    @mattdm yep. If an image appears OK it is highly likely to actually be OK. If not it is usually obvious. – doug Jan 12 '18 at 4:52
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    @doug Possibly, but not necessarily true. I had a MTP implementation bug which caused the last bits of files to be lost, This resulted in corrupt data at the end of the file which I didn't notice and which worked fine in my normal viewer but which caused Facebook to flip out. I had to go through and crop them all. It's worth using the tools in the other answer to check. – mattdm Jan 12 '18 at 4:54
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How can I make sure that all the photos that seem to be ok, are really ok?

Use a tool designed to check the integrity of the images. See Is there a tool to check the file integrity of a series of images?

There are also file copying tools that aggressively check files as they are copied.

Can it be a problem to have damaged .jpegs in the same folder as the correct pictures?

Corruption will usually not spread unless the underlying media is faulty. Some programs may crash and do as much damage as possible on the way out. Consider using different programs.

What can I do about that? I want to lose as little as possible.

Stop using faulty SD cards.

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A corrupt jpeg image among the others will not damage the others sitting in the same folder. Each jpeg is a discrete and separate data file.

You may want to try multiple times each time with a new folder in case one of the corrupt files can be transferred successfully and you don't want to overwrite any until you have checked them all.

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Use some batch handling tool that will aggressively notify you of any errors, then let it do something non trivial with the pictures, and look if any errors are apparent. In case you are familiar with shell scripting (on linux, mac, or cygwin systems), one good way would be using the ImageMagick convert tool in a for loop, checking the exit code after every conversion.

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