I'm not aware of any camera that adjusts automatic or semi-automatic exposure settings for subsequent frames based upon the results of the previous recorded frame. There are many different ways of measuring a scene upon which various cameras base their automatic exposure calculations. Most cameras each have a plethora of metering/exposure options.
But as far as I am aware, all cameras treat each metering event as a discrete one that is not influenced by the previous image recorded.
What you seem to be after is a metering mode that places the highest priority on not blowing the highlights. This is important for many photographers and many lighting situations. But there are also other times when getting the shadows or the midtones properly exposed is more important to the photographer. At those points where the dynamic range of the scene exceeds the dynamic range of the camera, the choice has to be made whether to clip highlights, shadows, or a bit of both.
Canon has long had an option called Highlight Tone Priority for their digital cameras. Nikon has pretty much the same thing called Active D Lighting. There are differences in the way each is implemented, but both start at exposing lower to avoid blown highlights and then pushing the tone curves of the shadows and mids in raw conversion. Other camera makers have offered similar options.
More recently there have been even more sophisticated methods introduced for avoiding overexposed highlights. In their higher level models both Nikon and Canon have introduced newer metering/exposure methods that make avoiding blown highlights the highest priority. Nikon calls it Highlight Weighted Metering (it is only available with D, G, and E lenses - it can't be used with other lenses, even if they are "chipped"). Canon still calls it HTP, but the way it is implemented is far more sophisticated than early versions, and the versions currently used in the lower models, of HTP.
Beyond that, the introduction of RGB or RGB+IR light meters with hundreds of thousands of pixels divided into hundreds of metering zones has enabled very sophisticated "library" based metering where a metered scene is compared to a stored library of typical lighting scenarios. This has further refined the camera's ability to more often correctly guess when the highlights are more important and when the shadows are more important. To some degree such light meters are miniature imaging sensors. Meter readings, though not recorded to the camera's memory card, are effectively low resolution images upon which the camera bases exposure decisions similar to what mirrorless cameras (or DSLRs when shooting in Live View) do using the camera's main imaging sensor.
In the end, there's no such thing as correct or perfect exposure. There's only the image the photographer wishes to make. What may be perfect for one may be overexposed for another and too dark for yet another. Most photographers who are critically concerned about getting exposure "just so" will eventually learn to use Manual exposure mode so they can have complete control over all exposure parameters.