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I have been trying to take photographs of items in the mid-ground and am not getting sufficient blur on my foregrounds and backgrounds. I have tried using different distances between my subjects, adjusting my f-stops and I am only getting a slight blur effect at best.

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You have three options (as far as I know) to make background and/or foreground more out of focus:

  1. Use bigger sensor, open aperture. Big sensor and wide open aperture will help you to create very shallow DoF. In your case the sensor is very small, you can't change the lens. So this is not applicable
  2. Increase the ratio of the distance between the object and background. Get as close as possible to the object and as far as possible to the background. This is not always possible but you can play in this direction
  3. Use longest possible focal length. This can help you to minimize the depth of field (area which is in focus)

You can play "offline" and check DoF on this website (no affiliation with the author of the site)

P.S. I just realize there is fourth way to do what you want. You can accomplish the desired effect in post-production. Almost any editor will permit you to add blur to selected areas of your image.

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