This isn't a direct answer to your question, but probably a more correct one.
You really should get the broken filter off the lens. Sometimes filters get stuck and are hard to get off. That is difficult to deal with because you don't want to damage anything in taking the filter off.
You have the advantage that the filter is already damaged, and filter damage to the filter doesn't matter. You really should be able to get the old filter ring off the lens.
In a few rare cases when I had a filter that I just couldn't get off with any amount of reasonable finger pressure, I used a little bit of penetrating oil. Oil and camera lenses don't mix well, so you have to use as little as possible and wipe the result extra carefully. So far this has always worked.
If your filter ring got deformed, it will be even harder. However, you have the advantage of being able to grip the ring with needle nose plyers and the like. You don't care if the filter ring gets deformed in the process. You just want to make sure that the lens doesn't get hurt. You could (very carefully!) possibly even cut off a section of the old filter ring.
I just don't believe there isn't a way to take off the damaged filter, assuming the lens itself is still in good shape, as you say.