You can't. You MIGHT be able to glean something by looking at the negative at high magnification, but that's about it. When looking at a printed image, you're also looking at how the enlarging lens reproduced the image on the negative. You're also looking and how the paper and the development chemistry worked to affect the resultant image. To take an extreme example, imagine trying to determine film type by looking at an image printed in a newspaper!
I've printed images from Pan-X and Tri-X B&W film on a variety of papers in my own B&W lab and can only tell them apart under very controlled conditions, (identical image appearance on Ilford vs. Kodak papers) which you are unlikely to have. From experience, I have a good idea of how the two films respond to all ten zones....will you have the response curves in hand for the possible film types you're trying to deduce? Will you also have the original color scene to use as a baseline calibration standard? Will you know if a color filter was used on the camera?
About the best that you may be able to do is get an idea of film speed (ie. finer grain slower speed), but even that will require a good enough enlargement that film grain will appear. If the image is a reproduction, you're unlikely to get even that much.