No. It's possible for a bit to be flipped which has no immediately obvious effect. In fact, it's possible for a data error to have no visual effect at all.
If reasonably-sized blocks are missing or scrambled in the middle of the file, you'll get the kind of visual artifacts we see in typical questions under data-corruption. If a file is just truncated at the end, you may see just a black line at the bottom — easy to overlook. For JPEG files, either of these types of problems are usually detectable as the file format will not match what's expect from the spec, and tools and methods at Is there a tool to check the file integrity of a series of images? will usually detect this.
Even a single bit flip can be significant, since most graphics file formats have compression without any error correction. That usually means that everything after that point is confused (and visibly ruined).
On the other hand, there are a lot of areas of most files that can change without making any difference you can spot by eye or by a tool unless you have a checksum of the original to compare. This is also the case if the error happens to be in the metadata — maybe you'll loose some EXIF information, or have scrambled XMP tag data, but still have a valid file.