The phrase you are looking for is interchangeable lenses. If you look at Digital Photography Review's camera search page, you will see this as the primary distinction.
This almost always means a larger camera, though — few interchangeable lens cameras ("ILCs") are truly compact. The exception for that might be the Pentax Q series, like the Q-S1, although that does it by having a very small sensor. Most ILCs have larger sensors than your typical built-in-lens compact, resulting in better image quality — and of course larger size. You might narrow down the search results to cameras under 400g to get a first-pass cut, and then decide if the results fit your needs.
If you are looking for extraordinary zoom in a single lens, you may be disappointed in size there — the amazingly compact folded optics found in some travel zooms don't normally exist as changeable lenses. In fact, given that, you might want to instead just look for cameras with a built-in zoom lens that fits your needs — something in Panasonic's TZ/ZS series will give you a 10× zoom (with a field of view equal to that given by 25mm to 250mm on a 35mm camera) in a much smaller package that you'll find an any camera that lets you swap lenses. (Or, for that matter, the Casio camera you link — although I'd be super-skeptical of that seller, as this is Japanese back-stock, not a current model, and the listed spec gives "25× zoom" when you can see from the pictures that it's really 12.5×, and from 24mm to 300mm equivalent.)
Of course, in going with a built-in-lens travel zoom, you're giving up the opportunity to switch that long zoom for a portrait-specific lens, or a fast normal, or a fisheye effect lens. But, it doesn't sound like that's really your goal, anyway.