I've got a new Nikon D5300 with 18-55mm and 70-300mm lenses. The 18-55mm lens provided with the camera doesn't have switches or buttons to change focus mode and turn on off VR, etc. Does it matter?
I'm guessing that your camera came with the new AF-P kit lenses, which do not have any switches on them. Instead, it is all controlled in the camera menu. If you do not see the options in your camera's menu, you may need to update your camera to the latest firmware.
Does it matter in what situation? It would mostly depend on the situation you want to shoot in. Generally, you will have a "workaround" option.
About focus - you have plenty of focus modes the camera supports and you will mostly be able to focus properly using one of these:
If you shoot video, though, it might be harder to switch focus without the manual focus mode, and the autofocus motor will induce noise in the sound track of the video itself.
As about stabilization - you can always play with larger aperture, or even higher ISO (you have a range ot 100-12800/25600 ISO, which makes the pictures pretty usable up until 1600-3200 ISO and even higher. Ultimately, you can use a tripod (or put the camera on something) if you need a longer exposure time. A good way to avoid camera shake when clicking on the shooting button when using a tripod is use the timer option - e.g. add 2 seconds delay from the button press before the camera actually shoots.
Seems like you are using a new P series lens from Nikkor. AF and VR are controlled from the camera’s menu. D5500, D5300 and D3300 support these option. These lenses normally focus by wire . ie: electronic stepper motor inside the lens moves the elements back and forth to get focus. Nikkon say that models released after 2013 supports this lens. Older work on maual focus only.