How did this person create this shot of a tree in the center, the buildings circling it, and grass all around the edges?
I love this example and someday I want to make a similar one with snow and snowflakes.
This is known as the Little Planet effect. There are many ways to render it, and usually, the sky is on the outside and the ground, trees, buildings, etc. inside. But in this image they inverted that. This is what they refer to as a "tube" projection in the above link:
Some fisheye lenses use a stereographic projection to capture a wide-angle view. Compared to more traditional fisheye lenses which use an equal-area projection, areas close to the edge retain their shape, and straight lines are less curved. However, stereographic fisheye lenses are typically more expensive to manufacture. Image remapping software, such as Panotools, allows the automatic remapping of photos from an equal-area fisheye to a stereographic projection.
The stereographic projection has been used to map spherical panoramas. This results in effects known as a little planet (when the center of projection is the nadir) and a tube (when the center of projection is the zenith).
I use a very nice program suite named hugin, that takes a series of individual images and composes them into a panorama. The image you posted is a typical little planet panorama, easily done with hugin.
Try it, it's fun.