The general consensus in this thread is that detailed photography of a subject at a range of 10km is exceedingly difficult, and probably impossible using commercially available equipment — and there's plenty of evidence to support that in the other answers.
However, there is a way to photograph extremely distant targets in extreme detail — it's just not commercially available for most private citizens. NASA and other space agencies use this kind of hardware to track launches visually.
Image courtesy NASA, released into the public domain.
This assembly is the long-range ascent-tracking camera, mounted on the Contraves-Goerz Kineto Tracking Mount. It's really more of a telescope, but it does a good job of tracking distant targets in good-enough-for-rocket-scientists detail.
Wikipedia claims that this type of device has a 200-inch (5,080mm) video camera, as well as a 400-inch (10,160mm) film camera. These cameras are operated from Playalinda Beach; the beeline distance from there to LC-39A, the southernmost of the two ex-Space Shuttle launch pads, is 5.923km, however, this camera would be in use later during a launch, when a craft is much further downrange. It's not a stretch to say that it could capture detailed images and footage at 10km.
According to NASA's own website, there are other (FLIR/infrared) cameras on similar mounts with focal lengths between 20 and 150 inches (508mm to 3,810mm), used for medium-range tracking.
Unfortunately, I can't find photos which are tagged as having been taken with either of these devices specifically; searching around generally yields photos of the cameras themselves.
EDIT: This video of the October 2014 Orbital ATK Antares launch failure supposedly has some portions filmed with the long-range ascent-tracking camera.
EDIT 2: Come to think of it, cameras used on military drones may be able to spot fairly fine details at these distances. Pop culture would have you believe that a drone can see facial features of a person from cruising altitude.
Wikipedia claims that a Reaper drone will cruise at 25,000 feet, which is roughly 7.5km AMSL. Assuming Hollywood's assumption is right, and that that the drone isn't always looking straight down, and keeping in mind that its service ceiling is double its regular cruise altitude (50,000 feet AMSL), it's fairly reasonable to assume that the cameras on there can see details at 10km, accounting for turbulence and shimmering, hot air. I'm quite sure that details about the optics on these machines aren't publicly available.
I wouldn't really expect a cutting-edge military drone to be widely available to civilians, though!