It is probably worth noting that I just bought the ND filters and as such can most likely (it would be a hassle and I would have to pay for return shipping) return them for the next size up (which is 58mm so I would still have to use an adapter).
Reality check: you are putting the hassle of returning a wrongly bought filter set above your freedom to choose the lens you want. Think about whether your priorities are in the correct order.
I really don't want to buy new filters.
Why are you so attached to this filter purchase? It looks like you are afraid to return the filters because that would make it look like the original purchase was a mistake.
Now you are trying to find lenses that fit the filters and not the other way round as it should be.
Imagine at some point in the future you cannot print that awesome image you took from that once-in-a-lifetime photo opportunity as big as you want to because you bought a lower resolution body because of the lower resolving lens which you bought because of the … filters' thread diameter? Of course that's all worth it because you saved the cost for the return shipping of the filters! I'm exaggerating here (can't you tell ;) ), but you get the idea. Where will the chain of compromises end?
I would never use my ND filters on a larger thread size lens as shooting long exposure with a telephoto is rather difficult.
I'm afraid I cannot quite follow that reasoning. It looks like the assumption here is that bigger filter thread size means telephoto lens. 77mm for example is a filter thread size that quite a few wide angle lenses have. And long exposure is pretty much the same difficulty with any lens, because you'd use a tripod anyway. Doing it with a telephoto gives the option to create a stitched panorama for more pixels and thus bigger prints, but I don't see how taking several instead of a single image is "rather difficult".
So I am mainly wondering how much vignetting would be caused by mounting a 58mm circular polarizer (if I bought a new filter) to a 52mm or 55mm thread size lens?
As the 58mm filter is bigger, it would not bring more vignetting to the table.