I know what logarithms are, what shooting RAW is, and how storing images logarithmically increases details in shadows.
But what's the difference between "S log" and "V log"?
I've also seen mention of "V log L". What's the L?
S Log is a proprietary light gamma curve used by Sony. V Log is a proprietary light gamma curve used by Panasonic. V log L is, according to Panasonic, a bit more:
VLOG-L is not just a gamma, it is a “mode” — in the Scene File menus, you’ll see it referred to as “VLOG-L Mode,” not “VLOG-L Gamma.” As you look through the Scene File menu, you’ll see that when you enable VLOG-L mode, almost every other function in the Scene File menu becomes disabled. In VLOG-L mode the camera bypasses all that internal processing, and delivers an image that is as close to the raw sensor image as this camera can get.
There's a lot of good additional information regarding using V Log L with a Panasonic camera in this Tech Brief for the Panasonic AG-DVX200 camera.
Here's a decent minimally technical explanation of what S Log is.