No, currently the displayed order is, moving upward, the processing order. This processing order is used regardless of your workflow. From the manual:
Users frequently ask why the module order is fixed and if there are plans to change that restriction. There are several reasons why darktable works in the way described:
The sequence of modules has been selected with great care in order go give highest output quality. Changes to the sequence would generally worsen the result rather than improving it.
Certain image processing steps just don't make sense if they are shifted in the pixelpipe. To mention just a few: highlight reconstruction needs to be done on raw data before demosaicing and the demosaic step needs to be performed before any input color profile can be applied.
Most of darktable's modules are designed to work within a specific color model (see Section 3.2.10, “Color management” for more details). Full flexibility would require modules to support different parallel algorithms depending on the color space they are working in – this would drastically increase complexity.
That said, the fixed sequence of modules is not likely to change in the near future.
UPDATE for 2.6: As of version 2.6, there is now some ability to customize the tab contents, as described here. It requires editing of the darktable.css stylesheet, which may not be the most intuitive approach, but it's a start.
UPDATE for 3.0: It's now possible to change the ordering of the modules for processing purposes. This should not be used to make the GUI more convenient, since doing so will break the processing order.