The most obvious way is buy a lens that doesn't reset aperture on every shot you take. What are those lenses labeled? Do they exist?
Unfortunately, the process you describe is not a function of the lens. Rather, it is the camera body telling the lens to stop down the aperture prior to the shot, then releasing the aperture back to its open position after the shot.
Autofocus camera systems need plenty of light coming into the camera to work properly. Therefore, during composition, the camera leaves the aperture open wide (even if you set the aperture to a small number). It's only when the shot is taken is when the aperture is closed down to the desired size. This is why some cameras have an aperture preview button: in order to see, exactly, the depth-of-field you will get when you press the shutter button.
So, no, there is not a lens type you can buy to do this, because it's not a function of the lens.
EDIT: Actually, there is a lens type you can buy: the lens needs to have a Nikon mount, but not have an aperture control linkage. That is, it cannot be controlled by the body at all. The only non-adapted lenses I can think of that are available in F-mount are:
Lomography's Petzval and Daguerrotype Acrhomat lenses use Waterhouse stops, rather than an iris aperture. So the aperture control is literally sliding in different aperture stop plates.
Some (perhaps all?) Lensbaby lenses, such as the Burnside 35, Velvet 56, do not have aperture linkages on their F-mount versions. (I verified this by looking at eBay listings of F-mount versions of their lenses, looking for listings with images of the mount).
However, having said that, it is possible to solve the problem just by buying a different lens, under certain conditions. The condition is basically, buy a lens with manual aperture control to use on an incompatible camera body, along with an adapter to mount the lens to the camera.
For instance, to achieve what you want, it is common for people to use a Canon DSLR body with an appropriate Nikon-lens-to-Canon-body adapter, with a Nikon non-"G" (and non-"E") lens (i.e., a Nikon lens with mechanical aperture and an aperture control ring). With this configuration, the Canon body cannot provide any aperture control. The aperture is entirely determined by the control ring on the lens body, and it doesn't change before, during, or after the shot.
There are a few unstated facts in the setup described above that makes it all possible:
- Nikon's flange focal distance or registration distance is the largest of the common 35mm DLSRs on the market. This is the distance from the sensor plane to the lens flange mount. Nikon's is 46.5mm; Canon's is 44mm. This means that to mount a Nikon lens on a Canon body, a gap of 2.5mm must be inserted between the Canon camera and Nikon lens, in order for the lens's optical geometry to work as intended. But you can't put a Canon lens on a Nikon body, because the lens needs to be 2.5mm closer to the sensor than the Nikon's flange will allow.
- Nikon non-"E" lenses have a mechanical aperture linkage that sets the aperture size.
- Nikon "G" lenses have mechanical apertures, but do not have an aperture control ring. Only a camera body (or certain aperture-enabling adapters intended for use when reversing lenses for macro photography) will control the aperture.
- The aperture for any non-"E" Nikon lens will close down to its smallest size when disconnected from a camera body.
I am looking for a Nikon D3300 solution
In the general case, it just can't be done. With any Nikon body, the aperture will be opened and closed for every shot.
However, if you don't mind losing the ability to focus far away (i.e., you are timelapsing near subjects, or macro subjects), then you actually can achieve this with any non-"E" Nikon lens.
- You need to mount a lens-reverse adapter to the camera body. This adapter will give you a 52mm male filter thread just a millimeter or two in front of the flange mount.
- Then mount an aperture-enabler that has 52mm female filter threads to the lens-reverse adapter (such as the Fotodiox Nikon G Aperture Control Enabler. This essentially un-reverses the reverse-mount adapter, but also adds an aperture control ring in the process. The combination is essentially a 10-15mm thick extension tube.
- Mount the Nikon lens. You now have aperture control of the lens, that is not actuated at all by the camera body, so the aperture doesn't change at all shot-to-shot.