Your camera has a “mode” dial. You can turn until the symbol of a flower aligns with the index pointer. Now the camera is in “close-up” mode. Your camera now allows super close-up picture taking. This might me all you need however there are other paths.
While the “close-up” mode does a job, you need to know that the kit lens suppled is designed to do many tasks however it is slightly compromised when tasked to do close-up work.
For this task we generally choose a “macro” lens. These lenses are configured to deliver optimum sharpness at super close distances. A true macro lens should be your next purchase if you want to pursue close-up photography.
There are alternative methods:
You can purchase a close-up lens or even a set with different powers. These are supplemental lenses that you mount atop your existing lens. They act like reading glasses in that they allow close-up photography. Many will pooh-pooh these but they can actually deliver and certainly they are an entry level way to do close-up work.
These are clear lenses that mount atop your kit lens. They come is various powers, usually labeled +1 or +2 or +3 thru +10. These supplemental lenses are like reading glasses for cameras. I suggest you buy a +3 for starters. These close-up lenses are relatively not too expensive and they will give you an inexpensive entry into the world of close-up photography. The labeling is the same as that used by optometrist. I suggest you take your camera to the drugstore. You can find a display of reading glasses. Take one +3 off the shelf and hold one lens over you camera and play around focusing. Such reading glasses behave just like camera close-ups. Keep in mind that this reading glass experiment is to be used only to introduce you to the concept, you will need to buy camera close-up if you are intrigued by what they do.
There are two other alternatives: You can dismount the camera lens and re-mount it using an extension ring (most often called “rings”. These are relatively inexpensive metal spacers that lengthen the distance lens to sensor (film). Rings do a marvelous job but they are taxing because they disconnect the lens from the automation of camera body forcing you to make manual adjustments. More complex rings are available at a price and these maintain the lens to body connections. A more extreme lens extender is called a “bellows” These work like rings but allow super lens extension.
Super close-up work is enhanced if the lens uses is optimized to work on relatively flat subjects. A macro lens has such a design. When using a standard lens with rings or bellows, we often use a reversing ring. This mounts the standard lens backwards. The rear of the lens is optimized to project an image on the flat surface of the imaging chip (or film). Thus they give slightly improved performance when reversed as the rear of the lens is optimized for flatness.