A 10x simply means that the longest (most "zoomed in") focal length is 10x longer than than widest focal length. This has the effect that everything in the photo is 10x bigger. It's a ratio, and doesn't have any meaning in meters or feet.
It doesn't mean that it's as if you were 1 foot away instead of 10 feet. In fact, if you took photo with a wide angle lens, say 20mm, from 10 meters and crop it sufficiently, it will have the same composition as a picture taken with a 200mm lens at 10 meters (the quality will be much worse, but the spatial relationships between objects in the picture won't change; they will, however, change significantly if you move to 1 meter).
I suggest you try moving toward and away your subject with different focal length, you get very different compositions; a "zoomed in" picture tends to compress depth, whereas a wide lens will accentuate depth