I am using the 2014 version of Martin Evening's Adobe Photoshop CC for Photographers. In the section on the clone stamp and healing brush, he refers to the "aligned" option on the option bar. Obviously (from the illustrations contained in the book), the options bar has changed, and I do not see such an option. What, if anything, has taken its place within the option bar?
Are you sure you've got the Clone Stamp tool selected?
The below screenshot is from Photoshop CC 2015 I've circled the selected tool, and the 'Aligned' button is there. The keyboard shortcut to get to the clone stamp in Photoshop is 'S'. You can press that to get to the clone stamp tool. Make sure that it's just the Clone stamp and not the Pattern stamp (the Pattern stamp has an additional little black and white grid in its icon).
If you don't see the options bar similar to the below, then maybe the Options Bar is hidden. You can reset Photoshop's toolbar layouts by going to Window > Workspace > Reset.
If this doesn't work, can you edit your question with a screenshot?