Do some simple math:
Assume the plane is 20000 feet away, and 200 feet long.
Let's also assume you want to fill half the frame width (in a full-frame camera), which is 1/2 of 36 mm = 18 mm.
With B/G*d = f (where B is the size in the picture, G the size of the object, and d its distance), you get:
f = 18mm/200ft*20000ft = 1800 mm
An easier to remember way (I think) is to divide object distance by object size: 20000ft/200ft = 100, and that's the factor you need to multiply to the size you want on the picture.
1800 mm is out of the normal photographer's lens selection, but you can buy that. Probably a 600mm with two teleconverters is the cheapest way. Of course, you can also go for only 1/12 of the picture = 3 mm and you will need only 300 mm which most people have. Then you crop the picture down and still have enough resolution.
Note that I made wild assumptions about the size and distance of the plane. Make your own assumptions to get your own results.