Short Answer : you may be lucky !
As you supposed, it seems that you have indeed experienced some corruption(s) during the transfer. Technically speaking, a JPG is made of tiny blocks of pixels called "MCU block" (Minimum Coded Unit). In the case of your image, the MCU has the size of 16*8 pixels (regular sizes are 8*8, 8*16 and 16*8). As one can see in your image, corruption appears indeed as blocks.
Generally, if a block gets corrupted during the transfer, all the following blocks are "corrupted". If you are lucky, the information is still there on your hard drive, but misaligned somehow. So when an image viewer try to read your image, it shows weird colors and misaligned lignes (basically, if your image viewer displays something, you can probably recover the displayed part of your image... but probably not the whole image).
If only such a corruption occurs, you can try to correct it manually. You will lose the data from the corrupted blocks but might be able to recover the others.
WARNING : as most "repair" procedures will alter your image, make a copy of it before trying to repair it.
I managed to recover this image using a free tool called "JPEG Repair Shop" (JRS) from Anders Pedersen (http://anderspedersen.net/jpegrepair) :
Basically, all you have to do is load an image, find the first corrupted block and click on "Fix Colors". Sometimes, the "Fix Colors" options will still give strange colors. In this case, you can also add/remove MCU blocks and then try to fix the colors again.
You can see that almost all the image is now OK. Some blocks are still corrupted. You can see them in red in the following image :
Finally, using Photoshop and the clone stamp or the content-aware filling tools, you can obtain this :
Some other tools may be able to get better result, maybe you can use PhotoShop to do everything, but I don't know how.