You can use a cookie, but you won't be able to get the edge definition you want. (Well, unless you can find a way to get to the moon to take your pictures under natural sunlight.) Cookies are great for dappled lighting, but they're not very good at producing sharp patterns.
You really do need a projector (optical spot) and gobo to get where you want to go. Unfortunately, they're not cheap unless you can get by with something like the LightBlaster or similar speedlight attachment.¹ Most "serious" studio lights have some sort of optical spot available, though, and you may find that renting is a very good option compared to purchasing. You'll probably want to rent space as well, since trying to use a projector and gobo in a small space will give you distinct divergence across a human-sized subject, which may spoil the geometric effect you're trying to produce, along with depth-of-focus issues (it's like depth of field in reverse).
¹ There is some serious light loss using a projector, but fall-off isn't all that bad if the beam is tight, and if you're using a relatively recent and relatively capable camera, you can raise your ISO a bit to compensate for the light loss and the smallish aperture you're likely to be using. That said, the speedlight attachment approach is quite limited compared to studio lighting with a dedicated optical spot.