You should know that the big astronomical observatories sport giant telescopes that are actually telephoto lenses for specialized cameras. That being said, you can mount most any camera to binocular or telescope. Mounts and clamps are available on the web that clamp most any camera (with its exiting lens) to the eyepiece of common telescopes. This position is called “afocal”. You can do this by placing binoculars on a tripod or ledge and hand-hold the camera so the camera lens just kisses the eyepiece lens. Such a lash-up is likely the best way for you to get space pictures.
Most “space pictures” are shots of the moon or planets taken with super big telescopes either in space orbit or placed atop mountain locations. You can make space pictures but you will never achieve what the big boys get.
More advanced astrophotography use special adapters to mount your camera to commonly available telescopes. Two methods A. the camera lens is removed as is the telescope eyepiece, these are replaced by the camera. This is called “prime” position. The camera utilized the telescope’s objective lens as its telephoto optics. B. The camera telescope adapter contains the telescope eyepiece. The camera with lens removed is positioned so the image formed by the eyepiece is projected on film or sensor.
In astrophotography , most objects are too dim to photograph unless the exposure is minutes or hours long. To accomplish, the camera/telescope must be placed on a motorized mount that tracks the object, keeping it centered during the extended exposure.
Also, you should know that high magnifications are not achieved easily. To achieve you need large diameter objective lenses. As a rule of thumb, 35X power per inch diameter of objective lens. You can get lots more magnification but it will be “empty” meaning the image is magnified but resolving power is low. In other words, a 100x magnification might image a distant newspaper but if the magnification is empty, you can’t read the words.
Fine astronomical photography can be accomplished with simple and inexpensive equipment. You just must accept that the learning curve is a bit steep.