In my experience, Lightroom comes closest to this ideal. It is not exactly the use case you mention, as the different services all have different capabilities and different methods.
Lightroom allows you to manage your local collection with ease; in fact I would argue that it is among the best tools around for managing your local collection. In its recent versions, Lightroom provides the capability to Export and a slightly different capability to Publish. Export is familiar, as this is the ability to convert from native RAW to JPEG, with automation to 'Export to' a location, such as your hard drive, email, or even a few online services like Flickr. In this case, Lightroom is essentially creating a JPEG, uploading it to the service, then deleting the JPEG locally.
However, the newer Publish feature is closer to what you are needing: Publish allows you to create and manage 3rd party cloud services like Flickr, Smugmug, Picasa and others, creating folders, and 'publishing' images to those folders. Lightroom then remembers what photos are in what folders, and displays them, just like it displays local images. (these are not duplicate, but essentially fancy 'smart folders'). Arranging the images in these Publish folders will arrange them on the associated service, once you 'Publish' those changes.
For more extensive capabilities in this area, I strongly encourage you to investigate Jeffery Friedl's Lightroom plugins that extend Lightroom's capability to several other cloud services, and are essentially required add-ons for Lightroom.
For more on how to use Publish Services in Lightroom, see:
Adobe's Help section
Jeffery Friedl's excellent explanation of Flickr Publish Service
Adobe's Julieanne Kost's video sessions